Codings of IEA design features

Variable

N of IEAs covered

Values

Link to dataset and coding manual

Reference users should cite

Provisions for amending, modifying, or revising the text of the agreement

N= 172

Yes = 126

Dataset, data and Coding Manual

IEA Database Project 2007 (Mitchell and Rothman 2007)

Provisions for ad hoc or non-regular meetings of the Parties that do not entail an organizational body

N= 172

Yes = 36

Dataset and Coding Manual

IEA Database Project 2007 (Mitchell and Rothman 2007)

Provisions that address how disputes will be resolved, whether through dispute settlement, arbitration, mediation, or other alternatives.

N= 172

Yes = 95

Dataset and Coding Manual

IEA Database Project 2007 (Mitchell and Rothman 2007)

Provisions for financing the administration of the organizations associated with the agreement

N= 172

Yes = 95

Dataset and Coding Manual

IEA Database Project 2007 (Mitchell and Rothman 2007)

Provisions for financing programmatic elements of the agreement

N= 172

Yes = 63

Dataset and Coding Manual

IEA Database Project 2007 (Mitchell and Rothman 2007)

Provisions describing the functions of the highest decision-making body identified in the agreement

N= 172

Yes = 117

Dataset and Coding Manual

IEA Database Project 2007 (Mitchell and Rothman 2007)

Provisions describing the structure of the highest decision-making body identified in the agreement

N= 172

Yes = 125

Dataset and Coding Manual

IEA Database Project 2007 (Mitchell and Rothman 2007)

Secondary provisions that delineate measures intended to increase the likelihood that members will fulfill the substantive commitments they make under the agreement, including provisions related to monitoring, evaluation of, and responses to compliance, noncompliance, and behavioral change.

N= 172

Yes = 132

Dataset and Coding Manual

IEA Database Project 2007 (Mitchell and Rothman 2007)

Provisions detailing information exchanges (reports, communications, notifications, data exchanges) among Parties or between a Party and an organization

N= 172

Yes = 157

Dataset and Coding Manual

IEA Database Project 2007 (Mitchell and Rothman 2007)

Provisions that define who can and cannot be a member and the procedures for becoming a member.

N= 172

Yes = 157

Dataset and Coding Manual

IEA Database Project 2007 (Mitchell and Rothman 2007)

Provisions that mention relationships to any other international agreements or organizations

N= 172

Yes = 162

Dataset and Coding Manual

IEA Database Project 2007 (Mitchell and Rothman 2007)

Provisions that define the conditions under which members may terminate, withdraw, suspend, or invalidate the terms of the agreement

N= 172

Yes = 146

Dataset and Coding Manual

IEA Database Project 2007 (Mitchell and Rothman 2007)

Provisions delineating procedures for evaluating and revising the terms of the agreement

N= 172

Yes = 64

Dataset and Coding Manual

IEA Database Project 2007 (Mitchell and Rothman 2007)

Provisions on the functions of executive bodies, scientific or implementation committees, and other subsidiary organizations

N= 172

Yes = 86

Dataset and Coding Manual

IEA Database Project 2007 (Mitchell and Rothman 2007)

Provisions on the structure of executive bodies, scientific or implementation committees, and other subsidiary organizations

N= 172

Yes = 108

Dataset and Coding Manual

IEA Database Project 2007 (Mitchell and Rothman 2007)

Provisions that refer to science, scientific research, and/or technical research

N= 172

Yes = 146

Dataset and Coding Manual

IEA Database Project 2007 (Mitchell and Rothman 2007)

Provisions on the functions of the "administrative staff" for the agreement

N= 172

Yes = 91

Dataset and Coding Manual

IEA Database Project 2007 (Mitchell and Rothman 2007)

Provisions on the structure of the "administrative staff" for the agreement

N= 172

Yes = 83

Dataset and Coding Manual

IEA Database Project 2007 (Mitchell and Rothman 2007)

Provisions that limit the legal power of the agreement by clarifying the sovereign rights retained by member countries or by other actors despite the operation of the agreement

N= 172

Yes = 130

Dataset and Coding Manual

IEA Database Project 2007 (Mitchell and Rothman 2007)

Whether a treaty contains ambiguous or no specifications pertaining to standards or goals to be achieved, or whether it quantifies standards or goals, for example in the form of specific emission targets.”

211

160

Coding manual; Replication ; Prot dta ; No prot dta

Bernauer et al. 2013

 

Measures whether or not the treaty includes monitoring provisions

211

147

Coding manual; Replication ; Prot dta ; No prot dta

Bernauer et al. 2013

Indicates whether or not the treaty includes enforcement provisions

211

65

Coding manual; Replication ; Prot dta ; No prot dta

Bernauer et al. 2013

Measures whether an agreement includes dispute settlement provisions

211

120

Coding manual; Replication ; Prot dta ; No prot dta

Bernauer et al. 2013

Secretariat. Own secretariat = A ; existing secretariat = B

211

A = 64 ; B = 94

Coding manual; Replication ; Prot dta ; No prot dta

Bernauer et al. 2013

“Captures whether member countries are to be granted technical and/or financial assistance to meet the treaty’s goals”

211

All = 23 ; developing = 25

Coding manual; Replication ; Prot dta ; No prot dta

Bernauer et al. 2013

A fund is to be used or to be established as a financial source.

178

 

Codebook, dataset, and replication material

Mohrenberg et al. 2019

Fund usage across membership. Some members= A ; All members= B

178

 

Codebook, dataset, and replication material

Mohrenberg et al. 2019

Fund contribution. voluntarily =  A; mandatory al l= B ; mandatory some = C

178

 

Codebook, dataset, and replication material

Mohrenberg et al. 2019

Breadth of TNAs allowed to participate at CoPs (no, unspecified, small, medium, full)

178

 

Codebook, dataset, appendix and replication material

Koubi et al. 2021

Depth of transnational actors granted access (no, unspecific, observe, speak, vote)

178

 

Codebook, dataset, appendix and replication material

Koubi et al. 2021

Permanence of transnational actors granted access (no, unspecified, ad hoc, conditional, permanent)

178

 

Codebook, dataset, appendix and replication material

Koubi et al. 2021

Cross-references across phosphorous- and nitrogen- related instruments

99

 

Instructions and dataset

Ahlström & Cornell 2018

Integrated regulation takes the form of international agreements that build on one another to manage a specific issue that had been regulated under an earlier agreement

 

 

Codebook and dataset

Appendix

Ovodenko 2016

Ovodenko 2017

Conservation and/or sustainable use of resources

29

8

Table 2,354

Henckens et al. 2018

Protection of wild flora and fauna, environment and nature

29

18

Table 2, page 354

Henckens et al. 2018

Precautionary principle

29

10

Table 2, page 354

Henckens et al. 2018

Inter-generational equity

29

6

Table 2, page 354

Henckens et al. 2018

Intra-generational equity

29

5

Table 2, page 354

Henckens et al. 2018

Saving clauses. No mention = A; use existing international law = B; defer to past treaties if they are in the same spirit  = C defer to particular past treaties in the same policy field  = D; defer to particular past treaties in a different policy field = E; defer to all past treaties = F

67

A = 21%; B = 35%; C  = 3%; D  = 15%; E = 4%; F = 21%

Data and codebook

Axelrod 2011

Policy functions delegated. Rule making = A;  Adjudication = B; Implementation = C; Monitoring = D; Enforcement = E

152

A = 22%; B = 6%; C = 55%; D = 12%; E = 5%

Data

Green & Colgan 2013;

Actors responsible for delegated policy functions. States = A ; state agent(s)= B; an IO = C private actor = D

152

 

Data

Green & Colgan 2013;

Preamble refers to human health

2280

150

Codebook & Dataset

Morin and Blouin 2019

Provisions that mention the importance of a resource to human health

2280

20

Codebook & Dataset

Morin and Blouin 2019

Substance or activity considered dangerous to human health

2280

97

Codebook & Dataset

Morin and Blouin 2019

Protection of human health as one of the objectives of the agreement

2280

96

Codebook & Dataset

Morin and Blouin 2019

Recognition of a right to health

2280

12

Codebook & Dataset

Morin and Blouin 2019

Precautionary principle related to human health

2280

13

Codebook & Dataset

Morin and Blouin 2019

Importer can impose a quarantine

2280

54

Codebook & Dataset

Morin and Blouin 2019

Parties should invest in national health services and capacities

2280

4

Codebook & Dataset

Morin and Blouin 2019

Exceptions and safeguards to preserve human health

2280

61

Codebook & Dataset

Morin and Blouin 2019

Harmonization of domestic measures related to health policy

2280

10

Codebook & Dataset

Morin and Blouin 2019

Provisions that compel or encourage the Parties to cooperate with the World Health Organization

2280

6

Codebook & Dataset

Morin and Blouin 2019

Provisions that compel or encourage the Parties to cooperate with health institutions other than the WHO

2280

3

Codebook & Dataset

Morin and Blouin 2019

Reference to World Health Organization (Excludes calls for cooperation, ratification, implementation and prevalence)

2280

10

Codebook & Dataset

Morin and Blouin 2019

Presence or absence of “a secretariat to provide reporting and coordination”

266

65%

Dataset

Al-Abdulrazzak et al. 2017

Presence or absence of “scientific mandates requiring periodic expert review and assessment”

266

50%

Dataset

Al-Abdulrazzak et al. 2017

Presence or absence of “specific enforcement mechanisms to aid in implementation (e.g., compliance committees, boarding and inspection agreements, etc.)”

266

13%

Dataset

Al-Abdulrazzak et al. 2017

Citation to trade agreements. Cooperation with WTO = A; Cooperation with UNCTAD = B; Cooperation with PTA = C; Cooperation with other trade institutions = D; Implementation of trade agreements = E; Prevalence of trade agreement = F; Ratification of trade agreement = G; Trade organization as depositary = H; Reference to WTO = I;  Reference to UNCTAD = J; Reference to PTA = K; Reference to other trade institution = L

2602

A=2; B=4; C= 20; D= 20; E= 31; F= 13; G= 9; H= 13; I = 32; J= 6; K= 225; L=61

Codebook and dataset

Kim and Morin 2021

Additive Flexibility index, including: 1) exceptions to the main obligations; 2) the explicit possibility to make reservations; 3) a notification period of less than 12 months to withdraw from the agreement; 4) a minimum validity period of less than 5 years; 5) the possibility to withdraw partially from the agreement; 6) and a fixed duration for the agreement with the possibility of renewal.

2090

From 0 to 3. Mean 0.878

Codebook and dataset

Morin, Tremblay-Auger, Peacock, 2021

 

 

Collective body. Clauses that either: (A) create a new collective body involving all parties, (B) establish a collective body with a subset of parties (C) or provide new functions to an existing collective body

2090

865

Codebook and dataset

Morin, Tremblay-Auger, Peacock, 2021

Indicates that states completed an agreement (on water) that was integrated with an earlier agreement

 

 

Codebook and dataset

Ovodenko 2016

Membership eligibility. Close or Open.  

N= 517

Closed = 153; Open = 136

Dataset

Mitchell et al. 2020

Restriction basis for membership eligibility. IO/other treaty = A;

 Geography = B; By invitation = C; Designated states = D; Functional = E

N= 517

A= 80; B =60; C = 39; D = 26; E = 23

Dataset

Mitchell et al. 2020

Consent to be bound. Entry into force upon signature = A; Delay after conditions met = B; Delay after conditions met = C

N= 517

A = 88; B = 424; C=181

Dataset

Mitchell et al. 2020

Duration of the agreement. Indefinite = A language missing = B; Autoextension = C; Duration limited = D

N= 517

A= 72 B = 362; C = 55; D = 28

Dataset

Mitchell et al. 2020

Reservation. language missing = A; No reservation allowed = B; only ratification reservations = C; All reservations allowed = D; some reservation allowed =E

N= 517

A = 368; B = 81; C= 24; D = 23; E =21

Dataset

Mitchell et al. 2020

Citations between MEAs

N=637

1089 citations

Dataset and codebook

Kim 2013