Bilateral Environmental Agreements

For various reasons (see article describing the database, it proves far easier to develop a comprehensive list of multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) than of bilateral environmental agreements (BEAs).  The IEA Database Project is currently striving to ensure as many BEAs as possible are included but users are encouraged to look through the following sites that may include additional bilateral environmental agreements not yet included.   

  • Search the IEA Database for bilateral environmental agreements, using the Bilaterals link on that page
  • Country lists of bilateral agreements - these may contain additional bilaterals not yet in the IEA Database
    • Australia - list of all bilaterals and multilaterals (environmental and non-environmental)
    • Canada
      • ​​Environmental (bilateral and multilateral)
      • Bilaterals (environmental and non-environmental from 1783-1997)
    • Czech Republic (The Czech Republic is a signatory to the most important international conventions for environmental protection, and has met the obligations and commitments of these conventions. Bilateral environmental agreements have been concluded with 11 countries and additional agreements are being negotiated.)
    • Egypt - list of all multilateral environmental agreements
    • France - search of all bilaterals (environmental and non-environmental)
    • Hong Kong - list of all bilaterals (environmental and non-environmental)
    • Israel - bilateral agreements
    • Paraguay - list of bilaterals and multilaterals
    • Peru - list of bilaterals and multilaterals with a section on "natural resources" (recursos naturales)
    • Ministries of the Environment often have listings of environmental agreements to which a country is a party, including bilateral as well as multilateral ones (this set of links from UNEP).
    • Ministries of Foreign Affairs are also a good place to look (this set of links from US Institute of Peace)
  • ​Out of date links that provide starting points for updating this page:
  • Argentina
    • Environmental (bilateral and multilateral)
    • Bilaterals categorized by country (environmental and non-environmental)
  • Belarus
  • China - list of all bilaterals (environmental and non-environmental)
  • Ecuador - list of all bilaterals (environmental and non-environmental)
  • El Salvador - list of multilateral global and regional environmental agreements
  • Estonia - list of bilateral environmental agreements
  • Fiji - list of multilateral and bilateral agreements, with environmental interspersed
  • Finland - list of all environmental (bilateral and multilateral)
  • India - list of all bilaterals (environmental and non-environmental)
  • Italy - general environmental ministry information
  • Moldova - listing of agreements
  • Romania - search engine for agreements - add Romanian search term to URL or by country or listing
  • Sweden - bilateral environmental agreements
  • Turkey - list of all bilaterals (environmental and non-environmental)
  • United States - "Treaties in Force" lists all bilaterals and multilaterals (environmental and non-environmental)
  • A U.S. government report identified 170 multilateral (global and regional) and bilateral environmental agreements, two-thirds having been signed since 1972. See United States International Trade Commission, International Agreements to Protect the Environment and Wildlife, USITC Publication 2351 (January 1991), p. vii.