Dataset on environmental credibility

To use this dataset, read these notes and then use the link at the bottom of this page.


  • Environmental Credibility dataset: Bruhn, D., Morin, J.-F., Brandi, C. & Berger, A. (2017). Diffusion of environmental norms through trade agreements: evidence at the provision level. Under review.
  • Data Source: Data from Ronald B. Mitchell. 2002-2016. International Environmental Agreements Database Project (Version 2014.3).


  • Countries: 201
  • Years: 1858-2015
  • Number of MEAs: 1664


  • Country: Country name
  • iso: Country iso code (3 letters)
  • year: Year
  • ratified: Number of MEAs country has ratified in specified year
  • ratified_cumulative: Cumulative number of MEAs country has ratified until specified year
  • MEAs_world: Number of MEAs signed in specified year (world)
  • MEAs_world_cumulative: Cumulative number of MEAs signed until specified year (world)
  • env_credibility: Environmental credibility (Share of MEAs country has ratified until specified year)

Data source

Notes on construction, assumptions and limitations related to the dataset

  • The variable env_credibility is calculated as the share of MEAs that a given country has ratified or enforced relative to all MEAs signed until that date. It can be used to proxy environmental credibility. Rather than just signing an MEA, we assume that ratification is necessary to obtain such credibility.
  • Where data on ratification was not available for a given MEA and country, we substituted with the data of entry into force in that country (which typically comes after ratification and requires more than a signature).
  • The dataset counts all MEAs: first-time agreements as well as amendments, protocols etc.
  • The dataset does not take withdrawals into account. The share of withdrawals was 4.09% of all ratifications at the time of creation of the dataset (November 2016).
  • The dataset is a balanced panel for 201 countries for the time span 1858-2015. This means that there is an entry for each country over 158 years (even if some countries did not exist in the same form over the entire time span). This is due to the fact that the construction of the dataset is departing from a list of MEAs, not from country-level information. Users should take this into account when preparing statistics based on the environmental credibility dataset and should only use the country-year cells that are reflecting reality. (This will happen automatically when merging the environmental credibility dataset with other dataset, e.g. the World Development Indicators).
  • The construction of the dataset is based on the assumption that the data source (the IEA database) is complete and accurate. All remaining errors are our own.

By accessing the "Dataset on environmental credibility," I agree to cite the dataset as noted in the Citation above.  Access the Dataset on environmental credibility.