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Paragraphs in "Convention To Combat Desertification In Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought And/Or Desertification, Particularly In Africa" coded as DESCR

Label Provision
Pre.1 The Parties to this Convention,
Pre.2 Affirming that human beings in affected or threatened areas are at the centre of concerns to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought,
Pre.3 Reflecting the urgent concern of the international community, including states and international organizations, about the adverse impacts of desertification and drought,
Pre.4 Aware that arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas together account for a significant proportion of the Earth's land area and are the habitat and source of livelihood for a large segment of its population,
Pre.5 Acknowledging that desertification and drought are problems of global dimension in that they affect all regions of the world and that joint action of the international community is needed to combat desertification and/ or mitigate the effects of drought,
Pre.6 Noting the high concentration of developing countries, notably the least developed countries, among those experiencing serious drought and/ or desertification, and the particularly tragic consequences of these phenomena in Africa,
Pre.7 Noting also that desertification is caused by complex interactions among physical, biological, political, social, cultural and economic factors,
Pre.8 Considering the impact of trade and relevant aspects of international economic relations on the ability of affected countries to combat desertification adequately,
Pre.9 Conscious that sustainable economic growth, social development and poverty eradication are priorities of affected developing countries, particularly in Africa, and are essential to meeting sustainability objectives,
Pre.10 Mindful that desertification and drought affect sustainable development through their interrelationships with important social problems such as poverty, poor health and nutrition, lack of food security, and those arising from migration, displacement of persons and demographic dynamics,
Pre.11 Appreciating the significance of the past efforts and experience of States and international organizations in combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought, particularly in implementing the Plan of Action to Combat Desertification which was adopted at the United Nations Conference on Desertification in 1977,
Pre.12 Realizing that, despite efforts in the past, progress in combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought has not met expectations and that a new and more effective approach is needed at all levels within the framework of sustainable development,
Pre.13 Recognizing the validity and relevance of decisions adopted at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, particularly of Agenda 21 and its chapter 12, which provide a basis for combating desertification, Reaffirming in this light the commitments of developed countries as contained in paragraph 13 of chapter 33 of Agenda 21,
Pre.14 Recalling General Assembly resolution 47/ 188, particularly the priority in it prescribed for Africa, and all other relevant United Nations resolutions, decisions and programmes on desertification and drought, as well as relevant declarations by African countries and those from other regions,
Pre.15 Reaffirming the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development which states, in its Principle 2, that States have, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of international law, the sovereign right to exploit their own resources pursuant to their own environmental and developmental policies, and the responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environment of other States or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction,
Pre.16 Recognizing that national Governments play a critical role in combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought and that progress in that respect depends on local implementation of action programmes in affected areas,
Pre.17 Recognizing also the importance and necessity of international cooperation and partnership in combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought,
Pre.18 Recognizing further the importance of the provision to affected developing countries, particularly in Africa, of effective means, inter alia substantial financial resources, including new and additional funding, and access to technology, without which it will be difficult for them to implement fully their commitments under this Convention,
Pre.19 Expressing concern over the impact of desertification and drought on affected countries in Central Asia and the Transcaucasus,
Pre.20 Stressing the important role played by women in regions affected by desertification and/ or drought, particularly in rural areas of developing countries, and the importance of ensuring the full participation of both men and women at all levels in programmes to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought,
Pre.21 Emphasizing the special role of non-governmental organizations and other major groups in programmes to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought,
Pre.22 Bearing in mind the relationship between desertification and other environmental problems of global dimension facing the international and national communities,
Pre.23 Bearing also in mind the contribution that combating desertification can make to achieving the objectives of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Convention on Biological Diversity and other related environmental conventions,
Pre.24 Believing that strategies to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought will be most effective if they are based on sound systematic observation and rigorous scientific knowledge and if they are continuously re-evaluated,
Pre.25 Recognizing the urgent need to improve the effectiveness and coordination of international cooperation to facilitate the implementation of national plans and priorities,
Pre.26 Determined to take appropriate action in combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought for the benefit of present and future generations,
Pre.27 Have agreed as follows:
Sect.1 PART I
Art.10 Article 10
Art.10.1 1. The purpose of national action programmes is to identify the factors contributing to desertification and practical measures necessary to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought.
Art.10.2 2. National action programmes shall specify the respective roles of government, local communities and land users and the resources available and needed. They shall, inter alia:
Art.10.2.a (a) incorporate long-term strategies to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought, emphasize implementation and be integrated with national policies for sustainable development;
Art.10.2.b (b) allow for modifications to be made in response to changing circumstances and be sufficiently flexible at the local level to cope with different socio-economic, biological and geo-physical conditions;
Art.10.2.c (c) give particular attention to the implementation of preventive measures for lands that are not yet degraded or which are only slightly degraded;
Art.10.2.d (d) enhance national climatological, meteorological and hydrological capabilities and the means to provide for drought early warning;
Art.10.2.e (e) promote policies and strengthen institutional frameworks which develop cooperation and coordination, in a spirit of partnership, between the donor community, governments at all levels, local populations and community groups, and facilitate access by local populations to appropriate information and technology;
Art.10.2.f (f) provide for effective participation at the local, national and regional levels of non-governmental organizations and local populations, both women and men, particularly resource users, including farmers and pastoralists and their representative organizations, in policy planning, decision-making, and implementation and review of national action programmes; and
Art.10.2.g (g) require regular review of, and progress reports on, their implementation.
Art.10.3 3. National action programmes may include, inter alia, some or all of the following measures to prepare for and mitigate the effects of drought:
Art.10.3.a (a) establishment and/ or strengthening, as appropriate, of early warning systems, including local and national facilities and joint systems at the subregional and regional levels, and mechanisms for assisting environmentally displaced persons;
Art.10.3.b (b) strengthening of drought preparedness and management, including drought contingency plans at the local, national, subregional and regional levels, which take into consideration seasonal to interannual climate predictions;
Art.10.3.c (c) establishment and/ or strengthening, as appropriate, of food security systems, including storage and marketing facilities, particularly in rural areas;
Art.10.3.d (d) establishment of alternative livelihood projects that could provide incomes in drought prone areas; and
Art.10.3.e (e) development of sustainable irrigation programmes for both crops and livestock.
Art.10.4 Taking into account the circumstances and requirements specific to each affected country Party, national action programmes include, as appropriate, inter alia, measures in some or all of the following priority fields as they relate to combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought in affected areas and to their populations: promotion of alternative livelihoods and improvement of national economic environments with a view to strengthening programmes aimed at the eradication of poverty and at ensuring food security; demographic dynamics; sustainable management of natural resources; sustainable agricultural practices; development and efficient use of various energy sources; institutional and legal frameworks; strengthening of capabilities for assessment and systematic observation, including hydrological and meteorological services, and capacity building, education and public awareness.