First Update; pages 635-637



Statement of Intent for Bilateral Sustainable Development, Cooperation and Joint Implementation of Measures to Reduce Emissions of Greenhouse Gases Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Republic of Costa Rica, Washington, D.C., 1994


Done at Washington, D.C. 30 September 1994
Entered into force 30 September 1994
Primary source citation: Copy of text provided by the U.S. Department of State



WHEREAS, the Government of the United States of America, as represented by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), on the one hand, and the Government of the Republic of Costa Rica, as represented by the Costa Rica Ministry of Natural Resources, Energy and Mines, on the other hand, ("the Participants"), recognize that enhancing environmental protection, and, in particular, controlling greenhouse gas emissions to limit potential adverse climate change impacts, would be mutually beneficial;

WHEREAS, the Participants recognize that limiting the adverse impacts of climate change requires a global solution, to which both the United States and Costa Rica can make significant contributions, and the Participants have a mutual interest in working together in this area;

WHEREAS, the Participants recognize that the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which the governments of both countries have ratified, and other international agreements including the Convention on Biological Diversity, to which the governments of both countries are signatories, encourage countries to pursue the rapid development of and joint implementation of cooperative, mutually voluntary, and cost-effective projects, particularly technology cooperation projects aimed at reducing or sequestering emissions of greenhouse gases and at promoting sustainable development and biological diversity conservation;

WHEREAS the Participants will mutually benefit from the deployment and use of sustainable energy and greenhouse gas emission reduction and sequestration technologies and methods;

WHEREAS the Participants recognize the potential for additional investment in environmentally, socially and economically sound development through the participation of the private sector in joint implementation of measures and technology cooperation projects to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases;

WHEREAS, the Participants recognize that many methods and technologies that limit greenhouse gas emissions, also contribute to the control of local and regional environmental problems and that cost-effective, world-wide greenhouse gas emission reductions may be achieved by encouraging such reductions in countries where responsive solutions are available at least cost with possible financial and technical assistance and investment from individuals and organizations in other industrialized countries;

The Participants declare as follows:

The Participants hereby intend to facilitate the development of joint implementation projects which will encourage the following: market deployment of greenhouse gas-reducing technologies, including energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies; education and training programs; increased diversification of energy sources; conservation, restoration, and enhancement of forest carbon sinks, especially in areas that promote biodiversity conservation and ecosystem protection; reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and other pollution; and the exchange of information regarding sustainable forestry and energy technologies;

This cooperation should provide the basis for future similar arrangements among countries, particularly in the Western Hemisphere, and contribute to the international establishment of an accessible joint implementation regime that is sensitive to environmental, developmental, social and economic priorities. This cooperation will encourage partnerships involving the Participants, the private sector, non-governmental organizations, and other entities.

The Participants intend that the forms of cooperation under this framework may include, but are not limited to, the following:

A. The design of Costa Rica's criteria to facilitate acceptance of joint implementation projects -- including a model statement of acceptance -- consistent with the Groundrules for the U.S. Initiative on Joint Implementation (USIJI) and Costa Rica's domestic priorities for measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase sinks via joint implementation, including biodiversity conservation and ecosystem protection, reduction of local pollution, sustainable land-use practices, improved rural income opportunities, and local participation in project planning and execution;

B. Identification and support of projects that are likely to meet the criteria for joint implementation project selection developed by the USIJI, by Costa Rica, and for the pilot phase adopted by the Conference of the Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change;

C. The design of methodologies and mechanisms to establish procedures for monitoring and external verification of greenhouse gas reductions, and the tracking and attribution of such reductions, consistent with the criteria for project selection being developed by the USIJI, Costa Rica and by the Conference of the Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change;

D. Outreach and promotion of joint implementation and other sustainable development activities in the private, public, and non-governmental sectors, including dissemination of information about the USIJI and about Costa Rica's criteria for joint implementation projects, and supporting technical assistance resources through workshops, conferences, and information networks;

E. Education and training activities for personnel in related energy and land-use sectors, both private and governmental, to strengthen human resources and institutional infrastructure and facilitate private joint venture activities;

F. Improvement of information networks to share information on technologies, potential partners, projects, technical resources, relevant policies, financing resources, and other information deemed useful to support joint implementation and sustainable development;

G. The promotion of the development of a hemispheric partnership on sustainable development and joint implementation projects which may be addressed at the Summit of the Americas in December 1994, and subsequent related activities;

H. The expansion of existing relevant intergovernmental initiatives for technical, economic, and scientific collaboration in the area of greenhouse gas emissions reduction;

I. The exploration of credible certification of emissions reductions, especially the determination of reasonable greenhouse gas emissions baselines at the project level, and its relevance to potential related market mechanisms;

J. The design of innovative financial arrangements for activities and projects implemented in accordance with this Statement of Intent, for the purposes of:

1. facilitating increased private sector investment in sustainable development and joint implementation projects;

2. promoting new partnerships for project financing;

3. advocating on behalf of approved project portfolios for funding; and

4. identifying additional sources of project funding and the policy framework needed to facilitate access to them, i.e., financial incentives.

The Participants intend to develop a Memorandum of Understanding to delineate further the intended cooperative activities listed above, as deemed necessary.

The Participants intend to examine the need for provisions to insure against loss of greenhouse gas emissions reductions achieved through jointly implemented projects.

The Participants intend that any joint implementation project or other joint activity or arrangement undertaken pursuant to this Statement of Intent will be on terms accepted by all parties to the transaction. Furthermore, the Participants intend to include appropriate patent and other intellectual property rights provisions, as well as provisions to protect business confidential information, in any such plans or arrangements. In particular, in the event that any activity involves access to and the sharing or transfer of technology subject to patents or other intellectual property rights, such access and sharing or transfer will be provided on terms which recognize and are consistent with the adequate and effective protection of intellectual property rights.


Done at Washington, in duplicate, on this 30th day of September 1994. FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: [Signature]