First Update; pages 581-586



Agreement of Cooperation Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Republic of Benin for Cooperation in the GLOBE Program, Cotonou, 1995


Done at Cotonou 28 April 1995
Entered into force 28 April 1995
Primary source citation: Copy of text provided by the U.S. Department of State




The Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Republic of Benin (hereinafter the sides):

Intending to increase the awareness of students throughout the world about the global environment,

Seeking to contribute to increased scientific understanding of the earth, and

Desiring to support improved student achievement in science and mathematics,

have agreed to cooperate in the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Program as follows:


"Article I

The GLOBE Program is an international environmental science and education program that will bring students, teachers, and scientists together to study the global environment. GLOBE will create an international network of students, from age five through the end of high school (the French equivalent is "maternelle" to "'tablissements secondaires"), studying environmental issues, making environmental measurements, and sharing useful environmental data with the international environmental science community.


"Article 2

Agencies responsible for cooperation and coordination under this agreement are:

On the U.S. side, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, acting in conjunction with other U.S. Government agencies participating in the GLOBE Program;

On the Beninese side, the Ministry of National Education.

"Article 3

The U.S. side will:

1. Identify U.S. schools that will participate in the GLOBE Program (details regarding these schools in Appendix A);

2. Determine, in consultation with international scientists and educators, GLOBE environmental data to be collected and types of measurement equipment (described in Appendix B);

3. Select principal investigator teams for GLOBE environmental data collection, and support the U.S. members of the teams;

4. Calibrate, if necessary, measurement equipment that cannot be calibrated by teachers or students;

5. Develop, in consultation with international scientists and educators, appropriate educational materials;

6. Translate GLOBE instructional materials related to measurement procedures and reporting protocols into the six United Nations languages, provide these plus all broader GLOBE educational materials to the Beninese side for further reproduction as necessary;

7. Conduct annual regional training sessions for GLOBE Country Coordinators and GLOBE teachers who will serve as trainers for additional GLOBE teachers in the Republic of Benin, and provide a copy of GLOBE Program training materials to the Republic of Benin;

8. Design, develop, operate, and maintain GLOBE data processing capabilities and other necessary technology and equipment;

9. Provide GLOBE software, as necessary, for use in participating Beninese schools. (To the maximum extent possible, textual material appearing on computer screens will be accessible in the student's choice among the six United Nations languages);

10. Accept environmental data reported from GLOBE schools around the world, and develop and provide resultant global environmental images (visualization products) to the Beninese side; and

11. Evaluate the overall GLOBE Program periodically, in consultation with international GLOBE Country Coordinators, and modify the overall program as appropriate.

"Article 4

The Beninese side will:

1. Select Republic of Benin schools to participate in the GLOBE program and provide an updated list of Republic of Benin GLOBE schools at the beginning of each school year;

2. Ensure that Republic of Benin GLOBE schools conduct the fundamental activities detailed in Appendix A;

3. Designate a government Point of Contact within the Ministry of National Education responsible for policy-level communications with the Director of the GLOBE Program. The Ministry of National Education will nominate a GLOBE Country Coordinator responsible for day to day management, oversight, and facilitation of the GLOBE Program in the Republic of Benin;

4. Ensure that the Country Coordinator and some GLOBE teachers attend GLOBE regional training and in turn provide GLOBE training to other teachers involved with the GLOBE Program in the Republic of Benin;

5. Ensure that the GLOBE Program instructional materials related to data collection procedures and reporting protocols are utilized in Republic of Benin GLOBE schools, and that GLOBE educational materials are appropriately adapted, reproduced, and distributed to all GLOBE schools;

6. Ensure the supply of measurement equipment necessary for the collection, processing and reporting of environmental data to GLOBE schools in the Republic of Benin as described in Appendix B and C;

7. Ensure that teachers and students at Republic of Benin GLOBE schools calibrate GLOBE measurement equipment according to procedures provided in GLOBE instructional materials;

8. Make arrangements for the Country Coordinator to have access to Internet in order that, where necessary, GLOBE measurement data from Republic of Benin schools can be reported via Internet and GLOBE visualization products can be received via Internet;

9. Evaluate GLOBE operations in the Republic of Benin periodically and assist in conducting periodic evaluations of the overall GLOBE Program.


"Article 5

1. Each side will bear the costs of fulfilling its respective responsibilities under this agreement;

2. Obligations of each side pursuant to this agreement are subject to its respective funding procedures and the availability of appropriated funds, personnel, and other resources.


"Article 6

GLOBE environmental measurement data, visualization products, software, and educational materials will be available worldwide without restriction as to their use or redistribution.

"Article 7

Each side may release information on the GLOBE Program as it may deem appropriate without prior consultation with the other.


"Article 8

Each side will, in accordance with its laws and regulations, expedite customs and immigration procedures as required for implementation of this agreement.


"Article 9

The conduct of activities under this agreement will be consistent with the relevant laws and regulations of the two sides.


"Article 10

1. This agreement will enter into force upon signature of the two sides;

2. This agreement will remain in force for five years and it will be automatically extended for further five-year periods, unless either side decides to terminate it and notifies the other side with three months written notice;

3. This agreement may be amended by written agreement of the two sides.


Done at Cotonou, on the 28th day of April, 1995 in duplicate in the English and French languages, both texts being equally authentic.




Each partner country will be responsible for identifying its participating schools. Schools should be selected so as to satisfy the objectives of the GLOBE Program. In particular, countries should emphasize the selection of schools that will maximize the number of students worldwide participating in the program. Also, countries should consider involving schools in locations that will yield measurement data that is important to the international environmental science community.

Students at all GLOBE schools throughout the world will conduct the following fundamental activities: they will make environmental measurements at or near their schools; report their data to a GLOBE data processing site; receive vivid graphical global environmental images (visualization products) created from their data and the data from other GLOBE schools around the world; and study the environment by relating their observations and the resulting visualization products to broader environmental topics. All of these activities will be conducted under the guidance of specially trained teachers (GLOBE-trained teachers).

GLOBE educational materials will be used in GLOBE schools under the guidance of GLOBE-trained teachers. These materials will detail procedures for taking environmental measurements and protocols for reporting data; explain the significance of the measurements; guide the use of the visualization products; and integrate the measurement aspects of the program into a broader study of the environment. Schools throughout the United States and the rest of the world that are not GLOBE schools may become GLOBE affiliate schools by observing the GLOBE Program in operation through the internet. Students at these schools will benefit from the use of GLOBE visualization products and educational materials accessible on-line. All GLOBE affiliate schools will be encouraged to become participating GLOBE schools.


GLOBE environmental measurements will contribute in a significant way to the scientific understanding of the dynamics of the global environment. Every GLOBE school will conduct a core set of GLOBE environmental measurements in the following critical areas:

Atmosphere/climate, hydrology/water chemistry, and biology/geology. Where possible, a GLOBE school may coordinate its activities with those of other neighboring GLOBE schools, so that the complete set of GLOBE measurements will be available from a locality. As the GLOBE Program evolves, elective measurements not common to all GLOBE schools may be added in order to address local environmental issues.

Students at all age levels will be active participants in the GLOBE Program. The actual participation will be designed so as to be grade-appropriate for grades k-5, 6-8, and 9-12 (or equivalent). Younger students will make limited measurements which may be qualitative rather than quantitative. Older students will make additional measurements and more sophisticated measurements, as appropriate for their grade level. Measurement equipment will not need to be standardized; rather, performance specifications will be provided.

Following is an example list of core measurements and the equipment that will be needed to take these measurements. The full list will be initially determined and periodically updated as provided in Article 2.A.2, based on experience gained in implementing the GLOBE Program.

"Measurements "Equipment Needed

ATMOSPHERE/CLIMATE STUDIES: Air Temperature Max/Min Thermometer Calibration Thermometer Instrument Shelter Precipitation Rain Gauge Cloud Cover/Type Cloud Chart

HYDROLOGY/WATER CHEMISTRY STUDIES: Water pH pH Paper, Pen, or Meter Water Temperature Alcohol Thermometer Soil Moisture Gypsum Block Sensors Soil Moisture Meter

BIOLOGY/GEOLOGY STUDIES: Habitat Study Compass Meter Measuring Tape Surveying Markers or Stakes Tree Height Clinometer Tree Canopy Densitometer Tree Diameter Diameter Tape Species Identification Dichotomous Keys Phenology 35mm Camera


In order to derive maximum benefit from the GLOBE Program, all schools will be encouraged to use an international information network, initially using the internet, along with classroom computers. The World Wide Web multi-media information-access capability has been selected as the basis for IBM-compatible and Apple Macintosh computer systems to support the required GLOBE school activities of data entry, data analysis, and use of GLOBE environmental images. Following is a description of GLOBE computer and communications systems consistent with current GLOBE requirements.

Overall attributes of the minimum GLOBE school computer configuration that can execute the necessary software are:

For IBM-compatible systems: a 386 SX or higher level processor; at least 4 megabytes of RAM memory (8 megabytes preferred); a VGA-capable monitor and display driver (Super VGA preferred); a hard disk storage system with as large a capacity as possible (preferably 300 megabytes or larger); and a direct Internet connection or dial-up capability that can use SLIP or PPP protocols with a 14,400 bps modem (preferably supporting V.42bis data compression which can enable 57,600 bps operation). The Windows 3.1 or later operating system is necessary. A printer is desirable.

For Apple Macintosh systems: a 68030 20 Mhz or faster processor; at least 4 megabytes of RAM memory (8 megabytes preferred); a hard disk storage system with as large a capacity as possible (preferably 300 megabytes or larger); and a direct Internet connection or dial-up capability that can use SLIP or PPP protocols with a 14,400 bps modem (preferably supporting V.42bis data compression which can enable 57,600 bps operation). A printer is desirable.

Software for a higher performance GLOBE school computer system is being developed that will operate on higher performance, multimedia IBM-compatible systems and on Apple Macintosh systems. For IBM-compatible systems; a 486/66 or faster processor; 16 megabytes of RAM memory; 500 megabytes of hard disk space; a Super VGA monitor; a double-speed CD-ROM reader; a Soundblaster-compatible sound card; and an MPEG animation speed-up board will be required. For Apple Macintosh systems; a PowerPC processor; 16 megabytes of RAM memory; 500 megabytes of hard disk space; and a double-speed CD-ROM reader will be required. A communications capability the same as or better than for the minimum configurations above will also be required. A printer will be highly desirable.

It is recognized that there is a broad range of technological capabilities among potential GLOBE schools. The diversity of technology accessible by schools worldwide may require in some cases that environmental measurements be reported in hardcopy and that a variety of media be used to distribute visualization products, including photographs and broadcast television. All schools that want to participate in the program will be accommodated.

Technology associated with the GLOBE Program will continually evolve to higher levels and participants will be encouraged to upgrade over time.