First Update; pages 547-552



Memorandum of Understanding Between the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories of Australia for Cooperation in the GLOBE Program, Canberra, 1995


Done at Canberra 21 April 1995
Entered into force 21 April 1995
Primary source citation: Copy of text provided by the U.S. Department of State




The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, acting on behalf of itself and other US Government agencies participating in the GLOBE Program (hereinafter, the US side), and the Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories of Australia (hereinafter, the Australian side),

Intending to increase the awareness of students throughout the world about the global environment,

Seeking to contribute to increased scientific understanding of the Earth, and Desiring to support improved student achievement in science and mathematics,

Have agreed to cooperate in the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Program as follows:


The GLOBE program is an international environmental science and education program that will bring students, teachers, and scientists together to study the global environment. GLOBE will create an international network of students in grades K-12 (or equivalent) studying environmental issues, making environmental measurements, and sharing useful environmental data with the international environmental science community.


A. The United States side will:

1. Identify US schools that will participate in the GLOBE Program (details regarding GLOBE schools in Appendix A);

2. Select, in consultation with international scientists and educators, the GLOBE environmental measurements and types of measurement equipment (described in Appendix B);

3. Select Principal Investigator Teams for the GLOBE environmental measurements, and support the US members of the Teams;

4. Calibrate, if necessary, measurement equipment that cannot be calibrated by GLOBE teachers and students;

5. Develop, in consultation with international scientists and educators, GLOBE educational materials;

6. Translate GLOBE instructional materials related to measurement procedures and data reporting protocols into the six United Nations languages, and provide these plus all broader GLOBE educational materials to the Australian side for further reproduction as necessary;

7. Conduct annual regional training sessions for GLOBE Country Coordinators and GLOBE teachers who will serve as trainers for additional GLOBE teachers in Australia, and provide a copy of GLOBE training materials to the Australian side;

8. Design, develop, operate, and maintain GLOBE data processing capabilities and other necessary technology and equipment;

9. Provide GLOBE software, as necessary, for use on Australian GLOBE school computers. (To the maximum extent possible, textual materials appearing on computer screens will be accessible in the student's choice among the six United Nations languages.);

10. Accept environmental data reported from GLOBE schools around the world, and develop and provide resultant global environmental images (visualisation products) to the Australian side; and

11. Evaluate the overall GLOBE Program periodically in consultation with international GLOBE Country Coordinators, and modify the overall program as appropriate.

B. The Australian side will:

1. Select Australian schools to participate in the GLOBE Program (details regarding GLOBE schools in Appendix A) and provide an updated list of Australian GLOBE schools to the US side at the beginning of each school year;

2. Ensure that Australian GLOBE schools conduct the fundamental activities of GLOBE schools detailed in Appendix A (take GLOBE environmental measurements, report data, and receive and use resultant global environmental images, using GLOBE educational materials under the guidance of teachers trained to conduct the GLOBE Program);

3. Name an Australian Government Point of Contact responsible for policy-level communications with the Director of the GLOBE Program;

4. Name a Country Coordinator responsible for day-to-day management, oversight, and facilitation of the GLOBE Program in Australia;

5. Ensure that the Country Coordinator and some GLOBE teachers attend GLOBE regional training and in turn provide GLOBE training to at least one teacher in each Australian GLOBE school;

6. Ensure that GLOBE instructional materials related to measurement procedures and data reporting protocols are utilised in Australian GLOBE schools, and that broader GLOBE educational materials are appropriately translated, adapted, reproduced and distributed to all Australian GLOBE schools;

7. Ensure that Australian GLOBE schools have the necessary measurement equipment to take GLOBE environmental measurements (described in Appendix B);

8. Ensure that teachers and students at Australian GLOBE schools calibrate GLOBE measurement equipment according to procedures provided in GLOBE instructional materials;

9. Ensure that Australian GLOBE schools have the necessary computer and communications systems (described in Appendix C) to report GLOBE environmental measurements and to receive and use GLOBE visualization products, or make agreed alternative arrangements for such reporting and receipt. (At a minimum, the Australian country Coordinator will need access to Internet so that all measurement data from Australian GLOBE schools will be reported via Internet.); and

10. Evaluate GLOBE operations in Australia periodically and assist the US side in conducting periodic evaluation of the overall GLOBE Program.


Each side will bear the costs of fulfilling its respective responsibilities under this understanding. Obligations of each side pursuant to this understanding are subject to its respective funding procedures and the availability of appropriate funds, personnel, and other resources. The conduct of activities under this understanding will be consistent with the relevant laws and regulations of the two sides.


GLOBE environmental measurement data, visualisation products, software and educational materials will be available worldwide without restriction as to their use or redistribution.


Each side may release information on the GLOBE Program as it may deem appropriate without prior consultation with the other.


Each side will, to the extent permitted by its laws and regulations, facilitate the movement of persons and goods necessary to implement this understanding into and out of its territory and accord entry to such goods into its territory free of customs duties and other similar charges.


This understanding will enter into force upon signature of the two sides and will remain in force for five years. It will be automatically extended for further five-year periods, unless either side decides to terminate it and so notifies the other side with three months written notice. This understanding may be terminated at any time by either side upon three months prior written notice to the other side.

This understanding may be amended by written agreement of the two sides. A successor agency may assume the rights and obligations of this MOU upon the written agreement to that effect and the concurrence of both of the present sides which shall not be unreasonably withheld.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned, being duly authorised, have signed this Memorandum of Understanding.

SIGNED at Canberra, this twenty first day of April, 1995, in duplicate, in the English language.

For the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration: [Signature] Kaarn J. Weaver Charg' d'Affaires, a.i.

For the Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories: [Signature] Stuart Hamilton Secretary


Each partner country will be responsible for identifying its participating schools. Schools should be selected so as to satisfy the objectives of the GLOBE Program. In particular, countries should emphasise the selection of schools that will maximise the number of students worldwide participating in the program. Also, countries should consider involving schools in locations that will yield measurement data that is important to the international environmental science community.

Students at all GLOBE schools throughout the world will conduct the following fundamental activities: they will make environmental measurements at or near their schools; report their data to a GLOBE data processing site; receive vivid graphical global environmental images (visualisation products) created from their data and the data from other GLOBE schools around the world; and study the environment by relating their observations and the resulting visualisation products to broader environmental topics. All of these activities will be conducted under the guidance of specially trained teachers (GLOBE-trained teachers).

GLOBE educational materials will be used in GLOBE schools under the guidance of GLOBE-trained teachers. These materials will detail procedures for taking environmental measurements and protocols for reporting data; explain the significance of the measurements; guide the use of the visualisation products; and integrate the measurement aspects of the program into a broader study of the environment.

Schools throughout the United States and the rest of the world that are not GLOBE schools may become GLOBE Affiliate schools by observing the GLOBE Program in operation through the Internet. Students at these schools will benefit from the use of GLOBE visualisation products and educational materials accessible on-line. All GLOBE Affiliate schools will be encouraged to become participating GLOBE schools.

APPENDIX B GLOBE Environmental Measurements and Equipment

GLOBE environmental measurements will contribute in a significant way to the scientific understanding of the dynamics of the global environment. Every GLOBE school will conduct a core set of GLOBE environmental measurements in the following critical areas: Atmosphere/Climate, Hydrology/Water Chemistry, and Biology/Geology. Where possible, a GLOBE school may coordinate its activities with those of other neighbouring GLOBE schools, so that the complete set of GLOBE measurements will be available from a locality. As the GLOBE Program evolves, elective measurements not common to all GLOBE schools may be added in order to address local environmental issues.

Students at all age levels will be active participants in the GLOBE Program. The actual participation will be designed so as to be grade-appropriate for grades K-5, 6-8 and 9-12 (or equivalent). Younger students will make limited measurements which may be qualitative rather quantitative. Older students will make additional measurements and more sophisticated measurements, as appropriate for their grade level. Measurement equipment will not need to be standardised; rather, performance specifications will be provided.

Following is an example list of core measurements and equipment. The full list will be initially determined and periodically updated as provided in Article 2.A.2, based on experience gained in implementing the GLOBE Program.


Atmosphere/Climate: Air Temperature Max/Min Thermometer Calibration Thermometer Instrument Shelter Precipitation Rain Gauge Cloud Cover/Type Cloud Charts

Hydrology/Water Chemistry: Water pH pH Paper, Pen, or Meter Water Temperature Alcohol Thermometer Soil Moisture Gypsum block Sensors Soil Moisture Meter

Biology/Geology: Habitat Study Compass Meter Measuring Tape Surveying Markers or Stakes Tree Height Clinometer Tree Canopy Densiometer Tree Diameter Diameter Tape Species Identification Dichotomous Keys Phenology 35mm Camera

APPENDIX C GLOBE Computer and Communications Systems

In order to derive maximum benefit from the GLOBE Program, all schools will be encouraged to use an international information network, initially using the Internet, along with classroom computers. The World Wide Web multi-media information-access capability has been selected as the basis for IBM-compatible and Apple Macintosh computer systems to support the required GLOBE school activities of data entry, data analysis, and use of GLOBE environmental images. Following is a description of GLOBE computer and communications systems consistent with current GLOBE requirements.

Overall attributes of the minimum GLOBE school computer configuration that can execute the necessary software are:

For IBM-compatible systems: a 386 SX or higher level processor; at least 4 megabytes of RAM memory (8 megabytes preferred); a VGA-capable monitor and display driver (Super VGA preferred); a hard disk storage system with as large a capacity as possible (preferably 300 megabytes or larger); and a direct Internet connection or dial-up capability that can use SLIP and PPP protocols with a 14,400 bps modem (preferably supporting V.42bis data compression which can enable 57,600 bps operation). The Windows 3.1 or later operating system is necessary. A printer is desirable.

For Apple Macintosh systems: a 68030 20 Mhz or faster processor; at least 4 megabytes of RAM memory (8 megabytes preferred); a hard disk storage system with as large a capacity as possible (preferably 300 megabytes or larger); and a direct Internet connection or dial-up capability that can use SLIP or PPP protocols with a 14,400 bps modem (preferably supporting V.42bis data compression which can enable 57,600 pbs operation. A printer is desirable.

Software for a higher performance GLOBE school computer system is being developed that will operate on higher performance, multi-media IBM-compatible systems and on Apple Macintosh systems. For IBM-compatible systems: a 486/66 or faster processor; 16 megabytes of RAM memory; 500 megabytes of hard disk space; a Super VGA monitor; a double-speed CD-ROM reader; a Soundblaster-compatible sound card; and an MPEG animation speed-up board will be required. For Apple Macintosh systems: a PowerPC processor; 16 megabytes of RAM memory; 500 megabytes of hard disk space; and a double-speed CD-ROM reader will be required. A communications capability the same as or better than for the minimum configurations above will also be required. A printer will be highly desirable.

It is recognised that there is a broad range of technological capabilities among potential GLOBE schools. The diversity of technology accessible by schools worldwide may require in some cases that environmental measurements be reported in hardcopy and that a variety of media be used to distribute visualisation products, including photographs and broadcast television. All schools that want to participate in the program will be accommodated.

Technology associated with the GLOBE Program will continually evolve to higher levels and participants will be encouraged to upgrade over time.