THE MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION COMPENDIUM
MULTILATERAL / ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES
First Update; pages 279-287
Done at Nuuk 16 September 1993
Primary source citation: Copy of text provided by the United Nations
THE NUUK DECLARATION ON ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE ARCTIC
"Recognizing the special role and responsibilities of the Arctic Countries with respect to the protection of the Arctic environment,
"Acknowledging that the Arctic environment consists of ecosystems with unique features and resources which are especially slow to recover from the impact of human activities, and as such, require special protective measures,
"Further acknowledging that the indigenous peoples who have been permanent residents of the Arctic for millenia, are at risk from environmental degradation,
"Determined, individually and jointly, to conserve and protect the Arctic environment for the benefit of present and future generations, as well as for the global environment,
"Noting that in order to achieve sustainable development, environmental protection shall constitute an integral part of the development process and cannot be considered in isolation from it,
"Recognizing the importance of applying the results of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development to the Arctic region,
"Welcoming the efforts of the eight Arctic Countries to implement, through the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy, relevant provisions of the Rio Declaration, Agenda 21 and the Forest Principles, efforts which include the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP), and the Working Groups on the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), Emergency Prevention, Preparedness and Response, and the Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment,
"Affirming Principle 2 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development which affirms that States have, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of international law, the sovereign right to exploit their own resources pursuant to their own environmental and developmental policies, and the responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environment of other States or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction,
"Further affirming Principle 22 of the Rio Declaration, which states that: "indigenous people and their communities .... have a vital role in environmental management and development because of their knowledge and traditional practices. States should recognize and duly support their identity, culture and interests and enable their effective participation in the achievement of sustainable development."
hereby make the following Declaration:
1. "We reaffirm our commitment to the protection of the Arctic Environment as a priority and to the implementation of the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy.
2. "We adopt the report of the Second Ministerial Conference of the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy, and "endorse its provisions to implement the Strategy, in particular:
seeking resources to enable each country to fully participate in the program activities under the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy;
endeavouring to support, through these resources, joint projects in order to ensure that each country is able to participate in the activities of the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP), including the completion of national implementation plans and the comprehensive assessment of results;
establishing a working group to assess the need for further action or instruments to prevent pollution of the Arctic marine environment and to evaluate the need for action in appropriate international fora to obtain international recognition of the particularly sensitive character of the ice-covered sea areas of the Arctic;
reaffirming the commitment to sustainable development, including the sustainable use of renewable resources by indigenous peoples, and to that end agreeing to establish a Task Force for this purpose;
underlining the necessity of a notification system and improved cooperation for mutual aid in case of accidents in the Arctic area;
reaffirming that management, planning and development activities shall provide for the conservation, sustainable use and protection of Arctic flora and fauna for the benefit and enjoyment of present and future generations, including local populations and indigenous peoples.
3. "We will cooperate to conserve, protect and, as appropriate, restore the ecosystems of the Arctic. We will in particular cooperate to strengthen the knowledge base and to develop information and monitoring systems for the Arctic region.
4. "We recognize that effective domestic environmental legislation is a prerequisite to the protection of the environment. As Ministers we shall promote legislation required for the protection of the Arctic environment.
5. "We support the achievements of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, and state our beliefs that the Principles of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development have particular relevance with respect to sustainable development in the Arctic.
6. "We believe that decisions relating to Arctic activities must be made in a transparent fashion and therefore undertake to facilitate, through national rules and legislation, appropriate access to information concerning such decisions, to participation in such decisions and to judicial and administrative proceedings.
7. "We recognize the special role of the indigenous peoples in environmental management and development in the Arctic, and of the significance of their knowledge and traditional practices, and will promote their effective participation in the achievement of sustainable development in the Arctic.
8. "We believe that development in the Arctic must incorporate the application of precautionary approaches to development with environmental implications, including prior assessment and systematic observation of the impacts of such development. Therefore we shall maintain, as appropriate, or put into place as quickly as possible, an internationally transparent domestic process for the environmental impact assessment of proposed activities that are likely to have a significant adverse impact on the Arctic environment and are subject to decisions by competent national authorities. To this end we support the implementation of the provisions of the Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context.
9. "We underline the importance of prior and timely notification and consultation regarding activities that may have significant adverse transboundary environmental effects, including preparedness for natural disasters and other emergencies that are likely to produce sudden harmful effects on the Arctic environment or its peoples.
10. "We recognize the need for effective application of existing legal instruments relevant to protection of the Arctic environment, and will cooperate in the future development of such instruments, as needed. We support the early ratification of the United Nations Conventions on Biological Diversity and Climate Change.
11. "We undertake to consider the development of regional instruments concerned with the protection of the Arctic environment.
In witness whereof we have signed the present Declaration.
For the Government of Canada: [Signature] LEE CLARK
For the Government of Finland: [Signature] SIRPA PIETIKááINEN
For the Government of Norway: [Signature] BRRE PETTERSEN
For the Government of Sweden: [Signature] Gá(tm)áRAN A. PERSSON
Nuuk, 16 September 1993
The Ministers reaffirmed their commitment to protect and preserve the Arctic environment and fully recognized the special relationship of the indigenous peoples and local populations to the Arctic and their unique contribution to the protection of the Arctic environment.
The Ministers noted that protection of the Arctic environment requires that development activities be pursued in a sustainable manner, taking into account the special sensitivity of the Arctic environment, including the need to apply precautionary approaches. This requires prior assessment and systematic observation of the impacts of such development. The Ministers agreed to maintain, as appropriate, or put into place as quickly as possible, domestic processes for the environmental impact assessment of proposed activities that are likely to have a significant adverse impact on the Arctic environment, and are subject to decisions by competent national authorities. To this end, the Ministers supported the implementation of the provisions of the Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context.
The Ministers reviewed progress in the elaboration and implementation of the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (AEPS), and confirmed their intention to monitor, on a continuing basis, the threats to the Arctic environment through the preparation and updating of reports on the state of the Arctic environment, in order to initiate further cooperative action.
"Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP) The Ministers considered and accepted with appreciation the status report entitled "Update on Issues of Concern to the Arctic Environment", prepared by the Task Force of the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program. They noted with satisfaction that the Arctic Countries have now developed a comprehensive monitoring program which focuses on the monitoring of three priority categories of pollutants (persistent organics, heavy metals and radionuclides) in the atmospheric, terrestrial, freshwater, and marine environments and in humans. They noted that the comprehensive plan also includes monitoring on sub-regional priorities such as acidification and Arctic haze, oil pollution, UV radiation and eutrophication. They welcomed the national reports on how AMAP would be implemented and noted the necessity of developing the methodology of assessment.
Joint efforts by AMAP and relevant other international organizations to collect data on emissions and discharges of contaminants, and to develop atmospheric transport models linking source regions with Arctic receptors, are also underway. These latter activities, when completed, will assist in providing information with which to evaluate the effectiveness of control proposals.
It is of concern that the Arctic continues to be a depository for loadings of persistent organic contaminants, such as PCBs and DDT, through long-range transport from industrialized and agricultural areas in Asia, Europe, and North and Central America and through local sources. Persistent organics accumulate in the fatty tissues of wildlife. This is of particular concern in the Arctic, where lipid-rich wildlife are consumed by local residents, thereby providing a pathway for these contaminants to humans. Researchers and health authorities fear that chronic exposure to persistent organics may have harmful effects on top predators and humans.
Studies continue to confirm that the Arctic acts as a sink for heavy metals which enter the northern environments from local sources and from sources outside the Arctic. Research has shown that effects on ecosystems in the Arctic are evident in areas with particularly high emissions of heavy metals. Exposure for humans has in several areas exceeded the norms of the World Health Organization. In the marine environment, mammals in some areas contain elevated concentrations of heavy metals, especially mercury and cadmium.
The concentration levels of radionuclides in the Arctic Ocean which have been observed at the present time are generally low and do not appear to pose a widespread risk at present. But, knowledge of sources and releases is insufficient and assessments of future consequences cannot be performed at this stage. There is significant concern with regard to the risks associated with potential releases of radionuclides into the environment from different sources, including dumped radioactive materials and wastes, run-off, leakages and accidental releases. Authorities thus agree that additional investigation is necessary, and studies should continue.
Taking into account different negative consequences for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and also for human health caused by methods and technologies applied for the use of Arctic natural resources (first of all through chemical pollution observed in the environment of regions with high concentration of industrial and mining enterprises) the eight Arctic Countries nationally and in collaboration with other states and international organizations and in the framework of bilateral and multilateral agreements, will undertake urgent measures
to exchange available information and data on emissions and discharges of contaminants to the Arctic Region, and to promote, as appropriate, the exchange of relevant know-how, experience and technologies on which to base effective pollution abatement measures;
to identify and, as appropriate, assess sources of contamination and their pathways to the Arctic, including an inventory of waste sites of imminent and substantial endangerment to human health and the Arctic environment;
to develop, on the basis of these and other assessments, proposals aimed at reduction of discharges, contamination and cleaning-up by countries of their regions affected by severe contamination and to gain support for these reductions in the nations with the responsibility for the contaminations.
Studies continue to demonstrate that acid deposition is a severe environmental threat in large regions of the Arctic, particularly northern Fennoscandia and the Kola Peninsula. Acidifying substances are emitted by industry and the combustion of fuels, and reach the Arctic environment from local and distant sources.
The Ministers noted with satisfaction the progress achieved within the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN-ECE) to undertake the work necessary to provide by 1994 the basis for possible protocols to control and reduce emissions of these substances under the auspices of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP). The Ministers agreed to support the development of appropriate protocols under the LRTAP auspices, and to consult with non-ECE nations whose emissions and discharges may affect the Arctic, to achieve their participation in the protocols. They also agreed to continue to take measures to reduce and/or control the use of a number of persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals which may include the ultimate goal of eliminating the emission or discharge of organohalogen compounds to dangerous levels in the marine environment as noted in the Earth Summit.
The Ministers agreed to accord acidification priority pollutant status in a subregional context under AMAP, and to aim at an ambitious protection level, in line with the agreed European reference scenario, in the on-going negotiations on the second Sulphur Protocol. The Arctic implications of nitrogen depositions in relation to acidification should be considered when the second step of the Protocol on reduction and control of Nitrogen Oxides under the said Convention will be negotiated.
Depletion of the ozone layer has been detected in the Northern Hemisphere and can be expected to continue for some time. Ozone reduction results in enhancement of UV-B radiation which has harmful effects on ecosystems and humans.
Climate change, resulting from anthropogenic enhancement of the earth's natural greenhouse effect, is expected to be significant in the Polar regions. Increased temperature and precipitation in the Arctic may result in dramatic ecological and socioeconomic effects.
Noting the existing global cooperation on climate change and stratospheric ozone programs, the Ministers requested AMAP to regularly review the integrated results of these programs with a view to identifying gaps in the scope of the monitoring and research under these fora and with a view to ensuring that specific issues related to the Arctic region are placed on the agenda of the appropriate international bodies. The Ministers also requested AMAP to coordinate their monitoring programs with those planned by other programs in order to maximize data collection in logistically difficult areas and to integrate results as well as to contribute to the assessment of potential synergistic effects of multiple stresses on the Arctic and its inhabitants.
Radioactive Pollution The Ministers agreed that their respective Governments within their jurisdiction will
ensure that nuclear installations that may affect the Arctic meet international nuclear and radiological safety standards established by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA);
ensure that no disposal of radioactive waste or material will be made in Arctic waters in violation of provisions of the London Convention (1972). They will work and cooperate to provide, in the nearest possible future, conditions for a ban on all dumping of radioactive waste in Arctic waters, taking into account the revision of the London Convention;
initiate action to prevent further increase in activity levels of anthropogenically-derived radionuclides, irrespective of sources, and to reduce such levels, in order to keep the contamination as low as reasonably achievable;
initiate clean-up programs for contaminated areas, as appropriate.
The Ministers decided to request AMAP, in cooperation with appropriate international and national agencies
to establish reliable and comprehensive systems for identification and characterization of present and potential sources of significant radioactive contamination and for monitoring levels of such contamination;
to establish data bases of sources, type and levels of radionuclide contamination of the atmospheric, the aquatic and the terrestrial environments of the Arctic and Northern areas;
to perform a long term assessment of potential releases to the environment of radioactive materials (e.g. from nuclear installations, waste disposal sites and contaminated regions), and to improve risk prediction capabilities.
Based on i.a. the AMAP risk assessment, the Ministers agreed that their respective Governments would, as appropriate, undertake measures to reduce environmental threats.
The Ministers noted with satisfaction the establishment of a subgroup of AMAP with the mandate to forge linkages between AMAP, and, in particular, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD (NEA), the North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC), NATO's Committee of Challenge of Modern Society (CCMS) and relevant organizations at the regional level (e.g. the Barents Euro-Arctic Council) to improve required coordination, and to provide initial guidance to the radiological assessment process.
AMAP Structure The Ministers, allowing for the institutional character of the work of AMAP, decided to substitute the AMAP Task Force by a Working Group to be responsible for the guidance of the work of AMAP, as decided upon at Rovaniemi and at Nuuk.
The Ministers requested AMAP to maintain a directory of bilateral and multilateral agreements related to environmental matters in the Arctic.
"Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment The Ministers noted, with concern, the information provided by AMAP, by the report on Facts and Problems Related to Radioactive Waste Disposal in the Seas Adjacent to the Territory of the Russian Federation (White Book), and by other studies regarding threats to the Arctic marine environment from land-based and maritime sources. Taking into account Chapter 17 of Agenda 21, adopted by the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), they agreed, in implementing chapter 7 of the AEPS, to establish a joint process
to assess the need, taking into consideration the nature of the threats, for further action or instruments on the international and/or national level to prevent pollution of the Arctic marine environment;
to coordinate work with the AMAP and CAFF (Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna) working groups in addressing the Arctic marine environment;
to evaluate the need for coordinated action in appropriate international fora to obtain international recognition of the particularly sensitive character of the ice-covered sea areas of the Arctic.
A Working Group, led by Norway, with representatives from all Arctic Countries, was formed to manage this initiative and to report on its findings and recommendations before the next Ministerial Conference.
The Ministers acknowledged the work of the CIS office of the Advisory Committee on Protection of the Sea (ACOPS) and noted the conclusions and recommendations of the ACOPS conference on pollution of the coasts of the CIS, with special emphasis on the Arctic, held in Arkhangelsk, Russian Federation, 19-23 July 1993. "Emergency Prevention, Preparedness and Response The Ministers noted with satisfaction that the eight Arctic Countries have embarked upon cooperative action on emergency prevention, preparedness and response in the Arctic and endorsed the recommendations presented in the progress report. A list of contact points and a reporting system have been established for notification and mutual assistance in the Arctic area.
The Ministers requested the Emergency Prevention, Preparedness and Response Working Group, led by Sweden,
to complete, by the end of 1994, the inventory and qualitative risk assessment for facilities or activities that may pose a risk of significant accidental pollution;
to propose, as a supplement to existing international agreements, adequate arrangements for prevention, preparedness and response in those parts of the Arctic area where regional or bilateral cooperation is not in place;
to improve cooperation in the field of research and development related to emergency prevention, preparedness and response through existing cold-climate mechanisms such as the Arctic Marine Oil Spill Progamme (AMOP);
to promote mutual aid mechanisms for assessment of and response to emergencies;
to consider further cooperative measures in the field of emergency prevention, preparedness and response. This would include the involvement of indigenous peoples.
The Ministers welcomed the generous offer of the United States to host the next meeting of this group in 1994. "Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) The Ministers noted with satisfaction the progress achieved through the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) Working Group. The CAFF Working Group has created a distinct forum for scientists, indigenous peoples and conservation managers to exchange information and data, to cooperate on the exchange of information on the research and management of Arctic flora and fauna and their habitats, and to examine and improve upon regulatory and conservation practices.
The Ministers endorsed
the direction and thrust of the CAFF program, as reflected in the work plan adopted in its first two meetings;
the practical approach taken by the CAFF to focus on specific issues through these work plans, as exemplified in the draft "State of Habitat Protection in the Arctic" Report;
the CAFF program as a concrete example of cooperation to implement the conservation measures called for in the Convention on Biological Diversity;
CAFF as a demonstration of international cooperation for conservation and sustainable use of Arctic resources using an ecosystem approach; and
the initiatives undertaken by CAFF to link conservation and wise use of flora and fauna to other components of the AEPS, through, for example, intensified cooperation with AMAP to ensure coherence in Arctic environmental protection efforts.
The Ministers noted with pleasure the progress made by the CAFF Working Group towards improving the conservation of Arctic flora and fauna.
The Ministers considered the following specific CAFF projects:
Habitat Conservation The Ministers were looking forward to the completion of the report on "State of Habitat Protection in the Arctic" as recommended by the CAFF Working Group. The report will include the following subjects: mapping of protected areas in the Arctic; review of management practices and regulations pertaining to these protected areas; assessment of gaps in the protected area system; and examples of habitat conservation measures outside the protected areas in the Arctic.
In addition, the Ministers requested the CAFF Working Group to prepare a plan for developing a network of Arctic protected areas that will ensure necessary protection of Arctic ecosystems, recognize the role of indigenous cultures, and provide a common process by which Arctic Countries may advance formation of circumpolar protected areas.
Integrating Indigenous Knowledge The Ministers acknowledged the efforts of the CAFF Working Group to identify specific initiatives for developing a process of collecting and integrating indigenous ecological knowledge and better defining participation of indigenous peoples in the overall Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy. These initiatives include, inter alia, an environmental and ecological mapping project based on traditional knowledge and a directory of indigenous knowledge data bases.
The Ministers reaffirmed their commitment to the principle of sustainable utilization and conservation of Arctic resources, particularly for the benefit of indigenous peoples.
Flora and Fauna Conservation The Ministers noted with satisfaction that the CAFF Working Group has successfully compiled circumpolar lists of rare, vulnerable and endangered species of flora and fauna, and is now turning its attention to the conservation needs of a selected number of those species. CAFF's review of existing species names and of identification criteria for species at risk, together with its decision to develop means for comparability, is encouraged by the Ministers.
The Ministers also acknowledged the importance of CAFF's identification of the full spectrum of human-caused threats to Arctic species and their habitats and endorsed its decision to further evaluate them.
All this work will help to further define gaps in knowledge about the Arctic ecosystems, identify sensitive indicators of environmental change, focus attention on resource conservation issues of common interest and concern, and is leading to the development of appropriate conservation strategies, as exemplified by the preparation of the Circumpolar Murre Conservation Strategy. The Ministers encouraged CAFF's continuation of the ecosystem approach as a basis for promoting more effective conservation of Arctic resources.
CAFF and AEPS The Ministers noted with pleasure the initiative of the CAFF Working Group and the AMAP Task Force to collaborate on ensuring compatibility of the two programs. The Ministers further acknowledged the decision of both the CAFF Working Group and the AMAP Task Force to collaborate to identify specific joint initiatives such as species lists for monitoring activities and compatible data bases. In due course, linkages between CAFF and the AEPS activities on the Protection of the Marine Environment and Emergency Prevention, Preparedness and Response should also be developed.
CAFF Structure The Ministers endorsed the administrative structure adopted by CAFF establishing a chair and vice chair, and the decision to develop a scientific framework for the CAFF program. The Ministers welcomed the generous offers of Iceland to host the 1994 meeting and of Russia to host the 1995 session. The Ministers noted with pleasure CAFF's decision to establish a secretariat on an interim basis, generously funded by the Canadian Government for its first year.
"Indigenous Knowledge The Ministers reaffirmed their commitment to sustainable development, including the sustainable use of renewable resources by indigenous peoples. In consequence, the Ministers agreed that a Task Force should be established by the Senior Arctic Officials to explore and propose additional steps governments should take to this end, and welcomed the kind offer of the Canadian Government to propose the terms of reference and the work plan for the Task Force by the end of 1993. To enhance the participation and contribution of indigenous people in the conservation and protection of the Arctic environment, and in order to bring their knowledge to bear on these matters, the Ministers agreed to explore various sources of support for indigenous organizations accredited to the AEPS, to enable them to determine how best they should participate in the AEPS. The Ministers accepted the generous offer by the Government of Iceland to host a seminar on indigenous knowledge, and further agreed that this meeting would be an opportune time to review the situation in this area.
"Consultations in International Fora The Ministers agreed that, when appropriate, informal consultations among the eight Arctic Countries on Arctic environmental issues should be held in connection with meetings in relevant international fora, at the initiative of the country designated to host the next Ministerial Conference or the next Senior Arctic Affairs Officials Meeting, respectively.
"Financial and Organizational Questions The Ministers underlined the importance of resources being made available and endeavouring to support projects to ensure that each country is able to participate in the activities of the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy, including the completion of their national AMAP implementation plans and to participate in the comprehensive assessment of its results. The Ministers noted that the AMAP Audit Report recommends the allocation of additional resources for the implementation of AMAP to the extent that can ensure the fulfillment of the goals set in the AEPS and in this report. The Ministers also noted that the CAFF Report identifies the need to develop strategies for financial support of projects and look forward to its recommendations.
The Ministers requested Senior Arctic Affairs Officials to keep the question of a financing strategy on their agenda with a view to presenting, in due course, recommendations to the Ministers.
The Ministers expressed their gratitude to the Governments of Norway and Canada for providing AMAP and CAFF with initial funding for their respective secretariats and called upon participating countries to consider contributing resources to these secretariats. The Ministers also expressed their appreciation of the support of the coordination activities, provided by the Government of Denmark and the Home Rule Government of Greenland, in preparation of the Ministerial Conference.
"Participation of Observers The Ministers noted the interest of some non-Arctic Governments, intergovernmental organizations, and non-governmental organizations to participate in Ministerial Conferences and other meetings of the AEPS. They reaffirmed that the decision to invite observers should be based on a pragmatic and functional evaluation of their involvement in and contribution to Arctic environmental questions, and they noted a procedure, adopted by the Senior Arctic Affairs Officials, to accredit new observers.
Taking into account that it is of great importance for the success of the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy that the ecological and environmental knowledge of circumpolar indigenous peoples is effectively incorporated into the process, the Ministers agreed to continue to promote cooperation with the Arctic indigenous peoples, including representatives of the Inuit Circumpolar Conference, the Saami Council and the Russian Association of Peoples of the North.
"Date and Venue of the Third Ministerial Conference The Ministers accepted the kind invitation of the Government of Canada to host the next Ministerial Conference in 1995, at a date to be decided.
The Ministers also requested Senior Arctic Affairs Officials to hold regular consultative meetings, at least once a year, to monitor and review progress in the implementation of the AEPS. Nuuk, 16 September 1993
Statement 1) by Mr. Svend Auken, Minister for the Environment of Denmark
"The Danish Government and the Greenland Home Rule Government have noticed the recommendations of the indigenous peoples' organizations regarding a special program area within the AEPS to address all issues related to the participation of indigenous peoples.
We have also noticed the idea of establishing a Secretariat with the aim of creating and supporting such a program.
The Government of Denmark, in cooperation with the Greenland Home Rule Government, is pleased to announce that we can support this recommendation not only verbally, but also by offering to establish a small Secretariat for this purpose in Denmark.
The aim of the Secretariat would be to allow indigenous peoples' organizations to participate in the AEPS process, e.g.
by facilitating meetings among indigenous peoples' organizations to assist them in how to best make contributions to the AEPS process,
by facilitating timely distribution of AEPS documentation to the indigenous habitants of the Arctic,
by facilitating on-going work on indigenous knowledge,
by facilitating the dialogue among indigenous peoples' organizations.
The time frame for the establishment of the Secretariat will be connected with the seminar in Iceland on traditional knowledge."