THE MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION COMPENDIUM
Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Canada on Arctic Cooperation, Ottawa, 1988 Done at Ottawa 11 January 1988
Entered into force 11 January 1988
Primary source citation: Copy of text provided by the U.S. Department of State
AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE GOVERNMENT OF CANADA ON ARCTIC COOPERATION
1. The Government of the United States of America and the Government of Canada recognize the particular interests and responsibilities of their two countries as neighbouring states in the Arctic.
2. The Government of Canada and the Government of the United States also recognize that it is desirable to cooperate in order to advance their shared interests in Arctic development and security. They affirm that navigation and resource development in the Arctic must not adversely affect the unique environment of the region and the well-being of its inhabitants.
3. In recognition of the close and friendly relations between their two countries, the uniqueness of ice-covered maritime areas, the opportunity to increase their knowledge of the marine environment of the Arctic through research conducted during icebreaker voyages, and their shared interest in safe, effective icebreaker navigation off their Arctic coasts:
The Government of the United States and the Government of Canada undertake to facilitate navigation by their icebreakers in their respective Arctic waters and to develop cooperative procedures for this purpose;
The Government of Canada and the Government of the United States agree to take advantage of their icebreaker navigation to develop and share research information, in accordance with generally accepted principles of international law, in order to advance their understanding of the marine environment of the area;
The Government of the United States pledges that all navigation by U.S. icebreakers within waters claimed by Canada to be internal will be undertaken with the consent of the Government of Canada.
4. Nothing in this agreement of cooperative endeavour between Arctic neighbours and friends nor any practice thereunder affects the respective positions of the Governments of the United States and of Canada on the Law of the Sea in this or other maritime areas or their respective positions regarding third parties.
5. This Agreement shall enter into force upon signature. It may be terminated at any time by three months' written notice given by one Government to the other.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned, duly authorized to that effect, have signed this Agreement.
DONE in duplicate, at Ottawa, this 11th day of January, 1988, in the English and French languages, each version being equally authentic.
George P. Shultz FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Joe Clark FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF CANADA