Volume(s) 1-3; pages 2541-2544



Protocol on the Protection of the Black Sea Marine Environment Against Pollution by Dumping, Bucharest, 1992


Done at Bucharest 22 April 1992

Not in force

Primary source citation: Copy of text provided by the U.S. Department of State



Article 1

In accordance with Article X of the Convention, the Contracting Parties shall take individually or jointly all appropriate measures for the implementation of this Protocol.

Article 2

Dumping in the Black Sea of wastes or other matter containing substances listed in Annex I to this Protocol is prohibited.

The preceding provision does not apply to dredged spoils provided that they contain trace contaminants listed in Annex 1 below the limits of concentration to be defined by the Commission within a 3 year period from the entry into force of the Convention.

Article 3

Dumping in the Black Sea of wastes or other matter containing noxious substances listed in Annex II to this Protocol requires, in each case, a prior special permit from the competent national authorities.

Article 4

Dumping in the Black Sea of all other wastes or matter requires a prior general permit from the competent national authorities.

Article 5

The permits referred to in articles 3 and 4 above shall be issued after a careful consideration of all the factors set forth in Annex III to this protocol by the competent national authorities of the relevant coastal State. The Commission shall receive records of such permits.

Article 6

The provisions of Articles 2, 3 and 4 shall not apply when the safety of human life or of vessel or aircraft at sea is threatened by complete destruction or total loss or in any other case when there is a danger to human life and when dumping appears to be the only way of averting such danger, and if there is every probability that the damage resulting from such dumping will be less than would otherwise occur. Such dumping shall be carried out so as to minimize the likelihood of damage to human or marine life. The Commission shall promptly be informed.

Article 7

1. Each Contracting Party shall designate one or more competent authorities to:

a) issue the permits provided for in Articles 3 and 4;

b) keep records of the nature and quantities of the wastes or other matter permitted to be dumped and of the location, date and method of dumping.

2. The competent authorities of each Contracting Party shall issue the permits provided for in Article 3 and 4 in respect of the wastes or other matter intended for dumping:

a) loaded within its territory;

b) loaded by a vessel flying its flag or an aircraft registered in its territory when the loading occurs within the territory of another State.

Article 8

1. Each Contracting Party shall take the measures required to implement this Protocol in respect of:

a) vessels flying its flag or aircraft registered in its territory;

b) vessels and aircraft loading in its territory wastes or other matter which are to be dumped;

c) platforms and other man-made structures at sea situated within its territorial sea and exclusive economic zone;

d) dumping within its territorial sea and exclusive economic zone.

Article 9

The Contracting Parties shall cooperate in exchanging information relevant to Articles 5, 6, 7 and 8. Each Contracting Party shall inform the other Contracting Parties which may potentially be affected, in case of suspicions that dumping in contravention of the provisions of this Protocol has occurred or is about to occur.

ANNEX I Hazardous Substances and Matter

1. Organohalogen compounds, e.g. DDT, DDE, DDD, PCB's.

2. Mercury and mercury compounds.

3. Cadmium and cadmium compounds.

4. Organotin compounds.

5. Persistent synthetic matter which may float, sink or remain in suspension.

6. Used lubricating oils.

7. Lead and lead compounds.

8. Radioactive substances and wastes, including used radioactive fuel.

9. Crude oil and hydrocarbons of any origin.

ANNEX II Noxious Substances

The following substances, compounds or matter have been selected mainly on the basis of criteria used in Annex I, while taking into account the fact that they are less harmful or more readily rendered harmless by natural processes.

The control and strict limitation of the dumping of the substances referred to in this Annex shall be implemented in accordance with Annex III of this Protocol.

1. Biocides and their derivatives not covered in Annex I. 2. Cyanides, fluorides, and elemental phosphorus.

3. Pathogenic micro-organisms.

4. Nonbiodegradable detergents and their surface-active substances.

5. Alkaline or acid compounds.

6. Substances which, though of a non-toxic nature, may become harmful to the marine biota owing to the quantities in which they are discharged e.g. inorganic phosphorus, nitrogen, organic matter and other nutrient compounds. Also substances which have an adverse effect on the oxygen content of the marine environment.

7. The following elements and their compounds:

Zinc Selenium Tin Vanadium
Copper Arsenic Barium Cobalt
Nickel Antimony Beryllium Thallium
Chromium Molybdenum Boron Tellurium
  Titanium Uranium Silver

8. Sewage Sludge


In issuing permits for dumping at sea, the following factors shall be considered:


1. Amount of matter to be dumped (e.g. per year).

2. Average composition of the matter to be dumped.

3. Properties: physical (e.g. solubility, density), chemical and biochemical (e.g. oxygen demand, nutrients), biological (e.g. presence of bacteria, etc.).

The data should include sufficient information on the annual mean levels and seasonal variations of the mentioned properties.

4. Long-term toxicity.

5. Persistence: physical, chemical, biological.

6. Accumulation and transformation in the marine environment.

7. Susceptibility to physical, chemical and biochemical changes and interaction with other dissolved matter.

8. Probability of inducing effects which would reduce the marketability of resources (e.g. fish, shellfish).


1. Location (e.g. co-ordinates of the dumping area, depth and distance from the coast) and its relation to areas of special interest (e.g. amenity areas, spawning, nursery and fishing grounds).

2. Methods and technologies of packaging and disposal of matter.

3. Dispersal characteristics.

4. Hydrological characteristics and seasonal variations in these characteristics (e.g. temperature, pH, salinity, stratification, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, nutrients, productivity).

5. Bottom characteristics (e.g. topography, geochemical, geological and biological productivity).

6. Cases and effects of other dumping.


1. Possible effects on amenities (e.g. floating or stranded matter, water turbidity, objectionable odour, discoloration, and foaming).

2. Possible effects on marine life, fish stocks, mari-cultures areas, traditional fishing grounds, seaweed harvesting and cultivation sites.

3. Possible effects on other uses of the sea (e.g. impairment of water quality for industrial use, underwater corrosion of structures, interference with vessel operations or fishing due to floating matter or through deposit of wastes or objects on the sea bed, and difficulties in protecting areas of special interest for scientific research or protection of nature).

4. Practical availability of alternative land disposal methods.