Volume(s) 1-3; pages 612-640


Appendices I and II to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

Done at Washington 16 April 1993

Depositary: Switzerland

Primary source citation: 27 UST 1087, TIAS 8249; Copies of the texts of Appendices I, II, and III provided by the Secretariat for the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.


Appendices I and II to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora 


   as adopted by the Conference of the Parties, valid as of 16 April 1993


1.    Species included in these appendices are referred to:

      a)    by the name of the species; or
      b)    as being all of the species included in a higher taxon or
            designated part thereof.

2.    The abbreviation "spp." is used to denote all species of a higher

3.    Other references to taxa higher than species are for the purposes of
      information or classification only.

4.    The abbreviation "p.e." is used to denote species that are possibly

5.    An asterisk (*) placed against the name of a species or higher taxon
      indicates that one or more geographically separate populations,
      subspecies or species of that species or taxon are included in
      Appendix I and are excluded from Appendix II.

6.    Two asterisks (**) placed against the name of a species or higher
      taxon indicate that one or more geographically separate populations,
      subspecies or species of that species or taxon are included in
      Appendix II and are excluded from Appendix I.

7.    The symbol (-) followed by a number placed against the name of a
      species or higher taxon denotes that designated geographically
      separate populations, species, groups of species or families of that
      species or taxon are excluded from the appendix concerned, as

    -101  Population of West Greenland
    -102  Populations of Bhutan, India, Nepal and Pakistan
    -103  Population of China
    -104  Population of Australia
    -105  Population of the United States of America
    -106  -      Chile: part of the population of Parinacota Province, Ia.
                 Region of Tarapac 
          -      Peru: populations of Pampa Galeras National Reserve and
                 Nuclear Zone, Pedregal, Oscconta and Sawacocha (Province
                 of Lucanas), Sais Picotani (Province of Azangaro), Sais
                 Tupac Amaru (Province of Junín), and of Salinas Aguada
                 Blanca National Reserve (Provinces of Arequipa and
    -107  Populations of Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal and
    -108  Cathartidae
    -109  Melopsittacus undulatus, Nymphicus hollandicus and Psittacula
    -110  Populations of Botswana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique,
          the United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe, and
          populations of the following countries subject to the specified
          annual export quotas:

                                         1992     1993     1994

          Madagascar                    3,100    4,100    4,400
           (ranched specimens:          3,000    4,000    4,300
           wild nuisance specimens:       100      100      100)
          Somalia                         500        0        0
          South Africa                  1,000    1,000    1,000
          Uganda                        2,500    2,500    2,500

          Apart from ranched specimens, the United Republic of Tanzania
          will authorize the export of no more than 100 hunting trophies
          each year, 400 nuisance animals in 1992, 200 a year in 1993 and
          1994 and 100 in 1995 and each following year.

    -111  Populations of Australia and Papua New Guinea, and population of
          Indonesia subject to specified annual export quotas as follows:

                                           1992     1993     1994

          Total                           9,700    8,500     8,500
          Ranched/captive-bred specimens  7,000    7,000     7,000
          Wild specimens                  1,500    1,500     1,500
          Skins in stock                  1,200        0     0

    -112  Population of Indonesia
    -113  Population of Chile
    -114  All species that are not succulent

8.  The symbol (+) followed by a number placed against the name of a
    species or higher taxon denotes that only designated geographically
    separate populations, subspecies or species of that species or taxon
    are included in the appendix concerned, as follows:

    +201  Population of South America (populations outside South America
          are not included in the appendices)
    +202  Populations of Bhutan, India, Nepal and Pakistan
    +203  Populations of Bhutan, China, Mexico and Mongolia
    +204  Populations of Cameroon and Nigeria
    +205  Population of Asia
    +206  Population of India
    +207  Populations of Central and North America
    +208  Population of Australia
    +209  -      Chile: part of the population of Parinacota Province, Ia.
                 Region of Tarapac 
          -      Peru: populations of Pampa Galeras National Reserve and
                 Nuclear Zone, Pedregal, Oscconta and Sawacocha (Province
                 of Lucanas), Sais Picotani (Province of Azangaro), Sais
                 Tupac Amaru (Province of Junín), and of Salinas Aguada
                 Blanca National Reserve (Provinces of Arequipa and
    +210  Populations of Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal and
    +211  Population of Mexico
    +212  Populations of Algeria, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, the Central
          African Republic, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, the Niger,
          Nigeria, Senegal and the Sudan
    +213  Population of the Sudan.  This listing will enter into force on
          11 July 1992 only, to allow the export of an existing stock of
          8,000 skins between 11 June and 11 July 1992, under specific
          conditions (skins to be tagged, documented and exported under
          the supervision of an independent observer)
    +214  Population of Europe, except the area which formerly constituted
          the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
    +215  Population of Indonesia with a zero export quota.  Export of
          captive-bred specimens of a maximum length of 15 cm will be
          limited to 3,000 in 1993 and 4,000 in 1994 from the operation of
          P.D. Bintang Kalbar, Pontianak, West Kalimantan
    +216  All species of New Zealand
    +217  Population of Chile

9.  The symbol (=) followed by a number placed against the name of a
    species or higher taxon denotes that the name of that species or taxon
    shall be interpreted as follows:

    =301  Includes family Tupaiidae
    =302  Includes generic synonym Leontideus
    =303  Includes synonym Saguinus geoffroyi
    =304  Includes synonym Cercopithecus roloway
    =305  Includes synonym Colobus badius kirki
    =306  Includes synonym Colobus badius rufomitratus
    =307  Includes generic synonym Simias
    =308  Includes generic synonym Mandrillus
    =309  Includes generic synonym Rhinopithecus
    =310  Includes synonyms Bradypus boliviensis and Bradypus griseus
    =311  Includes synonym Priodontes giganteus
    =312  Includes synonym Physeter catodon
    =313  Includes synonym Eschrichtius glaucus
    =314  Includes generic synonym Eubalaena
    =315  Includes synonym Dusicyon fulvipes
    =316  Also referenced as Cerdocyon thous
    =317  Includes generic synonym Fennecus
    =318  Also referenced as Ursus thibetanus
    =319  Also referenced as Aonyx microdon or as Paraonyx microdon
    =320  Includes synonyms Lutra annectens, Lutra enudris, Lutra incarum
          and Lutra platensis
    =321  Includes synonym Eupleres major
    =322  Also referenced as Lynx caracal; includes generic synonym
    =323  Also referenced as Lynx pardinus or Felis lynx pardina
    =324  Includes synonyms Equus kiang and Equus onager
    =325  Includes generic synonym Dama
    =326  Includes generic synonyms Axis and Hyelaphus
    =327  Includes synonym Bos frontalis
    =328  Includes synonym Bos grunniens
    =329  Includes generic synonym Novibos
    =330  Includes generic synonym Anoa
    =331  Includes synonym Oryx tao
    =332  Includes synonym Ovis aries ophion
    =333  Also referenced as Sula abbotti
    =334  Also referenced as Ciconia ciconia boyciana
    =335  Also referenced as Anas platyrhynchos laysanensis
    =336  Also referenced as Aquila heliaca adalberti
    =337  Also referenced as Falco peregrinus pelegrinoides
    =338  Includes synonym Falco babylonicus
    =339  Also referenced as Crax mitu mitu
    =340  Includes generic synonym Aburria
    =341  Formerly included in species Crossoptilon crossoptilon
    =342  Formerly included in species Polyplectron malacense
    =343  Includes synonym Rheinardia nigrescens
    =344  Also referenced as Tricholimnas sylvestris
    =345  Also referenced as Choriotis nigriceps
    =346  Also referenced as Houbaropsis bengalensis
    =347  Also referenced as Amazona dufresniana rhodocorytha
    =348  Often traded under the incorrect designation Ara caninde
    =348a Also referenced as Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae cookii
    =349  Also referenced as Opopsitta diophthalma coxeni
    =350  Also referenced as Geopsittacus occidentalis
    =351  Formerly included in species Psephotus chrysopterygius
    =352  Formerly included in genus Gallirex; also referenced as Tauraco
    =353  Formerly included in species Tauraco corythaix
    =354  Also referenced as Otus gurneyi
    =355  Also referenced as Ninox novaeseelandiae royana
    =356  Formerly included in genus Ramphodon
    =357  Formerly included in genus Rhinoplax
    =357a Also referenced as Pitta brachyura nympha
    =358  Also referenced as Muscicapa ruecki or as Niltava ruecki
    =359  Also referenced as Meliphaga cassidix
    =360  Formerly included in genus Spinus
    =361  Includes generic synonyms Nicoria and Geoemyda (part)
    =362  Also referenced in genus Testudo
    =363  Formerly included in Podocnemis spp.
    =364  Includes Alligatoridae, Crocodylidae and Gavialidae
    =365  Formerly included in Chamaeleo spp.
    =366  Also referenced as Constrictor constrictor occidentalis
    =367  Includes synonym Pseudoboa cloelia
    =368  Also referenced as Hydrodynastes gigas
    =369  Includes generic synonym Megalobatrachus
    =370  Sensu D'Abrera
    =371  Also referenced in genus Dysnomia
    =372  Includes generic synonym Proptera
    =373  Also referenced in genus Carunculina
    =374  Includes generic synonym Micromya
    =375  Includes generic synonym Papuina
    =376  Also referenced as Podophyllum emodi
    =377  Also referenced in genus Echinocactus
    =378  Also referenced in genus Escobaria
    =379  Also referenced as Lobeira macdougallii or as Nopalxochia
    =380  Also referenced as Echinocereus lindsayi
    =381  Also referenced as Wilcoxia schmollii
    =382  Also referenced as Solisia pectinata
    =383  Also referenced as Backebergia militaris
    =384  Also referenced in genus Toumeya
    =385  Also referenced in genus Toumeya or in genus Sclerocactus
    =386  Also referenced as Ancistrocactus tobuschii
    =387  Also referenced in genus Neolloydia or in genus Echinomastus
    =388  Also referenced in genus Neolloydia
    =389  Also referenced as Saussurea lappa
    =390  Also referenced as Engelhardia pterocarpa
    =391  Includes families Apostasiaceae and Cypripediaceae as
          subfamilies Apostasioideae and Cypripedioideae
    =392  Also referenced as Lycaste virginalis var. alba
    =393  Also referenced as Sarracenia rubra alabamensis
    =394  Also referenced as Sarracenia rubra jonesii
    =395  Includes synonym Stangeria paradoxa
    =396  Includes synonym Welwitschia bainesii

10.       The symbol (°) followed by a number placed against the name of a
          species or higher taxon shall be interpreted as follows:

    °501  Annual exports quotas for live specimens and hunting trophies
          are granted as follows:

          Botswana:      5
          Namibia:     150
          Zimbabwe:     50

          The trade in such specimens is subject to the provisions of
          Article III of the Convention

    °502  For the exclusive purpose of allowing international trade in
          cloth made from wool sheared from live vicuĄas of the
          populations included in Appendix II (see +209), and of items
          made thereof. The reverse side of the cloth must bear the
          logotype adopted by the range states of the species, which are
          signatories to the Convenio para la Conservación y Manejo de la
          VicuĄa, and the selvages either the words VICUąANDES-CHILE or
          the words VICUąANDES-PERU, depending on the country of origin

    °503  Fossils are not subject to CITES provisions

    °504  Tissue cultures and flasked seedling cultures are not subject to
          the provisions of the Convention

11.       In accordance with Article I, paragraph b, sub-paragraph (iii),
          of the Convention, the symbol (#) followed by a number placed
          against the name of a species or higher taxon included in
          Appendix II designates parts or derivatives which are specified
          in relation thereto for the purposes of the Convention as

    #1    Designates all parts and derivatives, except:
          a)     seeds, spores and pollen (including pollinia); and
          b)     tissue cultures and flasked seedling cultures

    #2    Designates all parts and derivatives, except:
          a)     seeds and pollen;
          b)     tissue cultures and flasked seedling cultures; and
          c)     chemical derivatives

    #3    Designates roots and readily recognizable parts thereof

    #4    Designates all parts and derivatives, except:
          a)     seeds and pollen;
          b)     tissue cultures and flasked seedling cultures;
          c)     fruits and parts and derivatives thereof of naturalized or
                 artificially propagated plants; and
          d)     separate stem joints (pads) and parts and derivatives
                 thereof of naturalized or artificially propagated plants
                 of the genus Opuntia subgenus Opuntia

    #5    Designates saw-logs, sawn wood and veneers

    #6    Designates all parts and derivatives, except:
          a)     seeds and pollen;
          b)     tissue cultures and flasked seedling cultures; and
          c)     separate leaves and parts and derivatives thereof of
                 naturalized or artificially propagated plants of the
                 species Aloe vera

    #7    Designates all parts and derivatives, except:
          a)     seeds and pollen (including pollinia);
          b)     tissue cultures and flasked seedling cultures;
          c)     cut flowers of artificially propagated plants; and
          d)     fruits and parts and derivatives thereof of artificially
                 propagated plants of the genus Vanilla

12.       As none of the species or higher taxa of FLORA included in
          Appendix I is annotated to the effect that their hybrids shall
          be treated in accordance with the provisions of Article III of
          the Convention, this means that artificially propagated hybrids
          produced from one or more of these species or taxa may be traded
          with a certificate of artificial propagation, and that seeds and
          pollen (including pollinia), cut flowers, tissue cultures and
          flasked seedling cultures of these hybrids are not subject to
          the provisions of the Convention.

                     APPENDIX I                     APPENDIX II



Tachyglossidae                                      Zaglossus spp.


Dasyuridae           Sminthopsis longicaudata
                     Sminthopsis psammophila

Thylacinidae         Thylacinus cynocephalus p.e.

Peramelidae          Chaeropus ecaudatus p.e.
                     Perameles bougainville

Thylacomyidae        Macrotis lagotis
                     Macrotis leucura

Phalangeridae                                       Phalanger maculatus
                                                    Phalanger orientalis

Burramyidae                                         Burramys parvus

Vombatidae           Lasiorhinus krefftii

Macropodidae         Bettongia spp.
                     Caloprymnus campestris p.e.
                                                    Dendrolagus inustus
                                                    Dendrolagus lumholtzi
                                                    Dendrolagus ursinus
                     Lagorchestes hirsutus
                     Lagostrophus fasciatus
                     Onychogalea fraenata
                     Onychogalea lunata


Pteropodidae                                        Acerodon spp.
                                                    Pteropus spp. *
                     Pteropus insularis
                     Pteropus mariannus
                     Pteropus molossinus
                     Pteropus phaeocephalus
                     Pteropus pilosus
Pteropodidae (cont.) Pteropus samoensis
                     Pteropus tonganus

PRIMATES                                            PRIMATES spp. * =301

Lemuridae            Lemuridae spp.
Cheirogaleidae       Cheirogaleidae spp.

Indriidae            Indriidae spp.

Daubentoniidae       Daubentonia madagascariensis

Callithricidae       Callithrix jacchus aurita
                     Callithrix jacchus flaviceps
                     Leontopithecus spp. =302
                     Saguinus bicolor
                     Saguinus leucopus
                     Saguinus oedipus =303

Callimiconidae       Callimico goeldii

Cebidae              Alouatta palliata
                     Ateles geoffroyi frontatus
                     Ateles geoffroyi panamensis
                     Brachyteles arachnoides
                     Cacajao spp.
                     Chiropotes albinasus
                     Lagothrix flavicauda
                     Saimiri oerstedii

Cercopithecidae      Cercocebus galeritus galeritus
                     Cercopithecus diana =304
                     Colobus pennantii kirki =305
                     Colobus rufomitratus =306
                     Macaca silenus
                     Nasalis spp. =307
                     Papio leucophaeus =308
                     Papio sphinx =308
                     Presbytis entellus
                     Presbytis geei
                     Presbytis pileata
                     Presbytis potenziani
                     Pygathrix spp. =309

Hylobatidae          Hylobatidae spp. 

Pongidae             Pongidae spp.


Myrmecophagidae                                     Myrmecophaga tridactyla

Bradypodidae                                        Bradypus variegatus

Dasypodidae          Priodontes maximus =311


Manidae                                             Manis crassicaudata
                                                    Manis javanica
                                                    Manis pentadactyla
                     Manis temminckii


Leporidae            Caprolagus hispidus
                     Romerolagus diazi


Sciuridae            Cynomys mexicanus
                                                    Ratufa spp.

Muridae              Leporillus conditor
                     Pseudomys praeconis
                     Xeromys myoides
                     Zyzomys pedunculatus

Chinchillidae        Chinchilla spp. +201

CETACEA                                             CETACEA spp. *

Platanistidae        Lipotes vexillifer
                     Platanista spp.

Ziphiidae            Berardius spp.
                     Hyperoodon spp.

Physeteridae         Physeter macrocephalus =312

Delphinidae          Sotalia spp.
                     Sousa spp.

Phocoenidae          Neophocaena phocaenoides
                     Phocoena sinus

Eschrichtidae        Eschrichtius robustus =313

Balaenopteridae      Balaenoptera acutorostrata ** -101
                     Balaenoptera borealis
                     Balaenoptera edeni
                     Balaenoptera musculus
                     Balaenoptera physalus
                     Megaptera novaeangliae

Balaenidae           Balaena spp. =314
                     Caperea marginata


Canidae              Canis lupus ** +202            Canis lupus * -102
                                                    Chrysocyon brachyurus
                                                    Cuon alpinus
                                                    Dusicyon culpaeus
                                                    Dusicyon griseus =315
                                                    Dusicyon gymnocercus
                                                    Dusicyon thous =316
                     Speothos venaticus
                                                    Vulpes cana
                                                    Vulpes zerda =317

Ursidae                                             Ursidae spp. *
                     Ailuropoda melanoleuca
                     Helarctos malayanus
                     Melursus ursinus
                     Selenarctos thibetanus =318
                     Tremarctos ornatus
                     Ursus arctos ** +203
                     Ursus arctos isabellinus

Procyonidae                                         Ailurus fulgens

Mustelidae           Aonyx congica ** +204 =319
                                                    Conepatus humboldtii
                     Enhydra lutris nereis
                     Lutra felina
                     Lutra longicaudis =320
                     Lutra lutra
                     Lutra provocax
                                                    Lutrinae spp. *
                     Mustela nigripes
                     Pteronura brasiliensis

Viverridae                                          Cryptoprocta ferox
                                                    Cynogale bennettii
                                                    Eupleres goudotii =321
                                                    Fossa fossa
                                                    Hemigalus derbyanus
Viverridae (cont.)                                  Prionodon linsang
                     Prionodon pardicolor

Hyaenidae            Hyaena brunnea

Felidae                                             Felidae spp. *
                     Acinonyx jubatus °501
                     Felis bengalensis bengalensis ** -103
                     Felis caracal ** +205 =322
                     Felis concolor coryi
                     Felis concolor costaricensis
                     Felis concolor cougar
                     Felis geoffroyi
                     Felis jacobita
                     Felis marmorata
                     Felis nigripes
                     Felis pardalis
                     Felis pardina =323
                     Felis planiceps
                     Felis rubiginosa ** +206
                     Felis temmincki
                     Felis tigrina
                     Felis wiedii
                     Felis yagouaroundi ** +207
                     Neofelis nebulosa
                     Panthera leo persica
                     Panthera onca
                     Panthera pardus
                     Panthera tigris
                     Panthera uncia


Otariidae                                           Arctocephalus spp. *
                     Arctocephalus townsendi

Phocidae                                            Mirounga leonina
                     Monachus spp.


Elephantidae         Elephas maximus
                     Loxodonta africana


Dugongidae           Dugong dugon ** -104           Dugong dugon * +208

Trichechidae         Trichechus inunguis
                     Trichechus manatus
                                                    Trichechus senegalensis


Equidae              Equus africanus
                     Equus grevyi
                                                    Equus hemionus * =324
                     Equus hemionus hemionus
                     Equus hemionus khur
                     Equus przewalskii
                                                    Equus zebra hartmannae
                     Equus zebra zebra

Tapiridae            Tapiridae spp. **
                                                    Tapirus terrestris

Rhinocerotidae       Rhinocerotidae spp.


Suidae               Babyrousa babyrussa
                     Sus salvanius

Tayassuidae                                         Tayassuidae spp. * -105
                     Catagonus wagneri

Hippopotamidae                                      Choeropsis liberiensis

Camelidae                                           Lama guanicoe
                     Vicugna vicugna ** -106        Vicugna vicugna * +209

Cervidae             Blastocerus dichotomus
                     Cervus dama mesopotamicus =325
                     Cervus duvauceli
                                                    Cervus elaphus
                     Cervus elaphus hanglu
                     Cervus eldi
                     Cervus porcinus annamiticus =326
                     Cervus porcinus calamianensis =326
                     Cervus porcinus kuhli =326
                     Hippocamelus spp.
                     Moschus spp. ** +210           Moschus spp. * -107
                     Muntiacus crinifrons
                     Ozotoceros bezoarticus
                                                    Pudu mephistophiles
                     Pudu pudu

Bovidae              Addax nasomaculatus
                                                    Ammotragus lervia
                     Antilocapra americana +211 
                     Bison bison athabascae
                     Bos gaurus =327
                     Bos mutus =328
                     Bos sauveli =329
                     Bubalus depressicornis =330
                     Bubalus mindorensis =330
                     Bubalus quarlesi =330
                                                    Budorcas taxicolor
                     Capra falconeri
                     Capricornis sumatraensis
                                                    Cephalophus dorsalis
                     Cephalophus jentinki
                                                    Cephalophus monticola
                                                    Cephalophus ogilbyi
                                                    Cephalophus sylvicultor
                                                    Cephalophus zebra
                                                    Damaliscus dorcas
                     Gazella dama
                     Hippotragus niger variani
                                                    Kobus leche
                     Nemorhaedus goral
                     Oryx dammah =331
                     Oryx leucoryx
                                                    Ovis ammon *
                     Ovis ammon hodgsoni
                                                    Ovis canadensis +211
                     Ovis orientalis ophion =332
                     Ovis vignei
                     Pantholops hodgsoni
                     Rupicapra rupicapra ornata



Struthionidae        Struthio camelus +212

Rheidae              Pterocnemia pennata
                                                    Rhea americana


Tinamidae                                           Rhynchotus rufescens
                                                    Rhynchotus rufescens
                                                    Rhynchotus rufescens
                     Tinamus solitarius


Spheniscidae                                        Spheniscus demersus
                     Spheniscus humboldti


Podicipedidae        Podilymbus gigas


Diomedeidae          Diomedea albatrus


Pelecanidae          Pelecanus crispus

Sulidae              Papasula abbotti =333

Fregatidae           Fregata andrewsi


Balaenicipitidae                                    Balaeniceps rex

Ciconiidae           Ciconia boyciana =334
                                                    Ciconia nigra
                     Jabiru mycteria
                     Mycteria cinerea

Threskiornithidae                                   Eudocimus ruber
                                                    Geronticus calvus
                     Geronticus eremita
                     Nipponia nippon
                                                    Platalea leucorodia

Phoenicopteridae                                    Phoenicopteridae spp.

Anatidae                                            Anas aucklandica
                                                    Anas aucklandica
                     Anas aucklandica nesiotis
                                                    Anas bernieri
                                                    Anas formosa
                     Anas laysanensis =335
                     Anas oustaleti
                     Branta canadensis leucopareia
                                                    Branta ruficollis
                     Branta sandvicensis
                     Cairina scutulata
                                                    Coscoroba coscoroba
                                                    Cygnus melanocorypha
                                                    Dendrocygna arborea
                                                    Oxyura leucocephala
                     Rhodonessa caryophyllacea p.e.
                                                    Sarkidiornis  melanotos

FALCONIFORMES                                       FALCONIFORMES spp. *

Cathartidae          Gymnogyps californianus
                     Vultur gryphus

Accipitridae         Aquila adalberti =336
                     Aquila heliaca
                     Chondrohierax uncinatus wilsonii
                     Haliaeetus albicilla
                     Haliaeetus leucocephalus
                     Harpia harpyja
                     Pithecophaga jefferyi

Falconidae           Falco araea
                     Falco jugger
                     Falco newtoni aldabranus
                     Falco pelegrinoides =337
                     Falco peregrinus =338
                     Falco punctatus
                     Falco rusticolus


Megapodiidae         Macrocephalon maleo

Cracidae             Crax blumenbachii
                     Mitu mitu mitu =339
                     Oreophasis derbianus
                     Penelope albipennis
                     Pipile jacutinga =340
                     Pipile pipile pipile =340

Phasianidae                                         Argusianus argus
                     Catreus wallichii
                     Colinus virginianus ridgwayi
                     Crossoptilon crossoptilon
                     Crossoptilon harmani =341
                     Crossoptilon mantchuricum
                                                    Gallus sonneratii
                                                    Ithaginis cruentus
                     Lophophorus spp.
                     Lophura edwardsi
                     Lophura imperialis
                     Lophura swinhoii
                                                    Pavo muticus
                     Polyplectron emphanum
                                                    Polyplectron germaini
                                                    Polyplectron malacense
                     Rheinardia ocellata =343
                     Syrmaticus ellioti
                     Syrmaticus humiae
                     Syrmaticus mikado
                     Tetraogallus caspius
                     Tetraogallus tibetanus
                     Tragopan blythii
                     Tragopan caboti
                     Tragopan melanocephalus
                     Tympanuchus cupido attwateri


Turnicidae                                          Turnix melanogaster

Pedionomidae                                        Pedionomus torquatus

Gruidae                                             Gruidae spp. *
                     Grus americana
                     Grus canadensis nesiotes
                     Grus canadensis pulla
                     Grus japonensis
                     Grus leucogeranus
                     Grus monacha
                     Grus nigricollis
                     Grus vipio

Rallidae                                            Gallirallus australis
                     Gallirallus sylvestris =344

Rhynochetidae        Rhynochetus jubata

Otididae                                            Otididae spp. *
                     Ardeotis nigriceps =345
                     Chlamydotis undulata
                     Eupodotis bengalensis =346


Scolopacidae         Numenius borealis
                     Numenius tenuirostris
                     Tringa guttifer

Laridae              Larus relictus


Columbidae           Caloenas nicobarica
                     Ducula mindorensis
                                                    Gallicolumba luzonica
                                                    Goura spp.

PSITTACIFORMES                                      PSITTACIFORMES spp. *

Psittacidae          Amazona arausiaca
                     Amazona barbadensis
                     Amazona brasiliensis
                     Amazona guildingii
                     Amazona imperialis
Psittacidae (cont.)  Amazona leucocephala
                     Amazona pretrei
                     Amazona rhodocorytha =347
                     Amazona tucumana
                     Amazona versicolor
                     Amazona vinacea
                     Amazona vittata
                     Anodorhynchus spp.
                     Ara ambigua
                     Ara glaucogularis =348
                     Ara macao
                     Ara maracana
                     Ara militaris
                     Ara rubrogenys
                     Aratinga guarouba
                     Cacatua goffini
                     Cacatua haematuropygia
                     Cacatua moluccensis
                     Cyanopsitta spixii
                     Cyanoramphus auriceps forbesi
                     Cyanoramphus cookii =348a
                     Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae
                     Cyclopsitta diophthalma coxeni =349
                     Neophema chrysogaster
                     Ognorhynchus icterotis
                     Pezoporus occidentalis p.e. =350
                     Pezoporus wallicus
                     Pionopsitta pileata
                     Probosciger aterrimus
                     Psephotus chrysopterygius
                     Psephotus dissimilis =351
                     Psephotus pulcherrimus p.e.
                     Psittacula echo
                     Psittacus erithacus princeps
                     Pyrrhura cruentata
                     Rhynchopsitta spp.
                     Strigops habroptilus


Musophagidae                                        Musophaga
                                                    porphyreolophus =352
                                                    Tauraco corythaix
                                                    Tauraco fischeri =353
                                                    Tauraco livingstonii
                                                    Tauraco persa =353
                                                    Tauraco schalowi =353
                                                    Tauraco schuettii =353

STRIGIFORMES                                        STRIGIFORMES  spp. *

Tytonidae            Tyto soumagnei

Strigidae            Athene blewitti
                     Mimizuku gurneyi =354
                     Ninox novaeseelandiae undulata =355
                     Ninox squamipila natalis


Trochilidae                                         Trochilidae spp. *
                     Glaucis dohrnii =356


Trogonidae           Pharomachrus mocinno


Bucerotidae                                         Aceros spp. *
                     Aceros nipalensis
                     Aceros subruficollis
                                                    Anorrhinus spp.
                                                    Anthracoceros spp.
                                                    Buceros spp. *
                     Buceros bicornis
                     Buceros vigil =357
                                                    Penelopides spp.
                                                    Ptilolaemus spp.


Ramphastidae                                        Pteroglossus aracari
                                                    Pteroglossus viridis
                                                    Ramphastos sulfuratus
                                                    Ramphastos toco
                                                    Ramphastos tucanus
                                                    Ramphastos vitellinus

Picidae              Campephilus imperialis
                     Dryocopus javensis richardsi


Cotingidae           Cotinga maculata
                                                    Rupicola spp.
                     Xipholena atropurpurea

Pittidae                                            Pitta nympha =357a
                                                    Pitta guajana
                     Pitta gurneyi
                     Pitta kochi

Atrichornithidae     Atrichornis clamosus

Hirundinidae         Pseudochelidon sirintarae

Muscicapidae                                        Cyornis ruckii =358
                     Dasyornis broadbenti litoralis p.e.
                     Dasyornis longirostris
                     Picathartes spp.

Zosteropidae         Zosterops albogularis

Meliphagidae         Lichenostomus melanops cassidix =359

Emberizidae                                         Gubernatrix cristata
                                                    Paroaria capitata
                                                    Paroaria coronata

Fringillidae         Carduelis cucullata =360
                                                    Carduelis yarrellii

Estrildidae                                         Poephila cincta cincta

Sturnidae            Leucopsar rothschildi

Paradisaeidae                                       Paradisaeidae spp.



Dermatemydidae                                      Dermatemys mawii

Emydidae             Batagur baska
                                                    Clemmys insculpta
                     Clemmys muhlenbergi
                     Geoclemys hamiltonii
                     Kachuga tecta tecta
                     Melanochelys tricarinata =361
                     Morenia ocellata
                     Terrapene coahuila

Testudinidae                                        Testudinidae  spp. *
                     Geochelone elephantopus =362
                     Geochelone radiata =362
                     Geochelone yniphora =362
                     Gopherus flavomarginatus
                     Psammobates geometricus =362

Cheloniidae          Cheloniidae spp.

Dermochelyidae       Dermochelys coriacea

Trionychidae         Lissemys punctata punctata
                     Trionyx ater
                     Trionyx gangeticus
                     Trionyx hurum
                     Trionyx nigricans

Pelomedusidae                                       Erymnochelys
                                                    madagascariensis =363
                                                    Podocnemis spp.

Chelidae             Pseudemydura umbrina

CROCODYLIA                                          CROCODYLIA spp. * =364

Alligatoridae        Alligator sinensis
                     Caiman crocodilus apaporiensis
                     Caiman latirostris
                     Melanosuchus niger

Crocodylidae         Crocodylus acutus
                     Crocodylus cataphractus
                     Crocodylus intermedius
Crocodylidae (cont.) Crocodylus moreletii
                     Crocodylus niloticus ** -110
                     Crocodylus niloticus +213
                     Crocodylus novaeguineae mindorensis
                     Crocodylus palustris
                     Crocodylus porosus ** -111
                     Crocodylus rhombifer
                     Crocodylus siamensis
                     Osteolaemus tetraspis
                     Tomistoma schlegelii

Gavialidae           Gavialis gangeticus


Sphenodontidae       Sphenodon punctatus


Gekkonidae                                          Cyrtodactylus
                                                    Phelsuma spp.

Agamidae                                            Uromastyx spp.

Chamaeleonidae                                      Bradypodion spp. =365
                                                    Chamaeleo spp.

Iguanidae                                           Amblyrhynchus cristatus
                     Brachylophus spp.
                                                    Conolophus spp.
                     Cyclura spp.
                                                    Iguana spp.
                                                    Phrynosoma coronatum
                     Sauromalus varius

Lacertidae           Gallotia simonyi
                                                    Podarcis lilfordi
                                                    Podarcis pityusensis

Cordylidae                                          Cordylus spp.
                                                    Pseudocordylus spp.

Teiidae                                             Cnemidophorus
                                                    Crocodilurus lacertinus
                                                    Dracaena spp.
                                                    Tupinambis spp.

Scincidae                                           Corucia zebrata

Xenosauridae                                        Shinisaurus

Helodermatidae                                      Heloderma spp.

Varanidae                                           Varanus spp. *
                     Varanus bengalensis
                     Varanus flavescens
                     Varanus griseus
                     Varanus komodoensis


Boidae                                              Boidae spp. * 
                     Acrantophis spp.
                     Boa constrictor occidentalis =366
                     Bolyeria multocarinata
                     Casarea dussumieri
                     Epicrates inornatus
                     Epicrates monensis
                     Epicrates subflavus
                     Python molurus molurus
                     Sanzinia madagascariensis

Colubridae                                          Clelia clelia =367
                                                    Cyclagras gigas =368
                                                    Ptyas mucosus

Elapidae                                            Hoplocephalus
                                                    Naja naja
                                                    Ophiophagus hannah

Viperidae            Vipera ursinii +214
                                                    Vipera wagneri



Ambystomidae                                        Ambystoma dumerilii
                                                    Ambystoma mexicanum

Cryptobranchidae     Andrias spp. =369


Bufonidae            Atelopus varius zeteki
                                                    Bufo retiformis
                     Bufo superciliaris
                     Nectophrynoides spp.

Myobatrachidae                                      Rheobatrachus spp.

Dendrobatidae                                       Dendrobates spp.
                                                    Phyllobates spp.

Ranidae                                             Rana hexadactyla
                                                    Rana tigerina

Microhylidae         Dyscophus antongilii



Ceratodidae                                         Neoceratodus forsteri


Coelacanthidae       Latimeria chalumnae


Acipenseridae        Acipenser brevirostrum
                                                    Acipenser oxyrhynchus
                     Acipenser sturio

Polyodontidae                                       Polyodon spathula


Osteoglossidae                                      Arapaima gigas
                     Scleropages formosus ** -112   Scleropages formosus *


Cyprinidae                                          Caecobarbus geertsi
                     Probarbus jullieni

Catostomidae         Chasmistes cujus


Schilbeidae          Pangasianodon gigas


Sciaenidae           Cynoscion macdonaldi



Papilionidae                                        Bhutanitis spp.
                                                    Ornithoptera  spp. *
                     Ornithoptera alexandrae
                     Papilio chikae
                     Papilio homerus
                     Papilio hospiton
                                                    Parnassius apollo
                                                    Teinopalpus spp.
                                                    Trogonoptera spp. =370
                                                    Troides spp. =370



Theraphosidae                                       Brachypelma smithi



Hirudinidae                                         Hirudo medicinalis



Tridacnidae                                         Tridacnidae spp.


Unionidae            Conradilla caelata
                                                    Cyprogenia aberti
                     Dromus dromas
                     Epioblasma curtisi =371
                     Epioblasma florentina =371
                     Epioblasma sampsoni =371
                     Epioblasma sulcata perobliqua =371
                     Epioblasma torulosa gubernaculum
                                                    Epioblasma torulosa
                     Epioblasma torulosa torulosa =371
                     Epioblasma turgidula =371
                     Epioblasma walkeri =371
                     Fusconaia cuneolus
                     Fusconaia edgariana
                                                    Fusconaia subrotunda
                                                    Lampsilis brevicula
                     Lampsilis higginsi
                     Lampsilis orbiculata orbiculata
                     Lampsilis satura
                     Lampsilis virescens
                     Plethobasus cicatricosus
                     Plethobasus cooperianus
                                                    Pleurobema clava
                     Pleurobema plenum
                     Potamilus capax =372
                     Quadrula intermedia
                     Quadrula sparsa
                     Toxolasma cylindrella =373
                     Unio nickliniana
                     Unio tampicoensis tecomatensis
                     Villosa trabalis =374


Achatinellidae       Achatinella spp.

Camaenidae                                          Papustyla pulcherrima

Paryphantidae                                       Paryphanta spp. +216

Strombidae                                          Strombus gigas


ANTIPATHARIA                                        ANTIPATHARIA  spp.

SCLERACTINIA                                        SCLERACTINIA spp. °503



Milleporidae                                        Milleporidae spp. °503

Stylasteridae                                       Stylasteridae spp. °503


COENOTHECALIA                                       COENOTHECALIA spp. °503


Tubiporidae                                         Tubiporidae spp. °503

F L O R A 

AGAVACEAE            Agave arizonica
                     Agave parviflora
                                                    Agave victoriae-reginae
                     Nolina interrata

AMARYLLIDACEAE                                      Galanthus spp. #1
                                                    Sternbergia spp. #1

APOCYNACEAE                                         Pachypodium spp. * #1
                     Pachypodium baronii
                     Pachypodium brevicaule
                     Pachypodium decaryi
                     Pachypodium namaquanum
                                                    Rauvolfia serpentina #2

ARACEAE                                             Alocasia sanderiana #1

ARALIACEAE                                          Panax quinquefolius #3

ARAUCARIACEAE        Araucaria araucana ** +217     Araucaria araucana *
                                                    -113 #1

ASCLEPIADACEAE                                      Ceropegia spp. #1
                                                    Frerea indica #1

BERBERIDACEAE                                       Podophyllum hexandrum
                                                    =376 #2

BROMELIACEAE                                        Tillandsia harrisii #1
                                                    Tillandsia kammii #1
                                                    Tillandsia kautskyi #1
                                                    Tillandsia mauryana #1
                                                    Tillandsia sprengeliana
                                                    Tillandsia sucrei #1
                                                    Tillandsia xerographica

BYBLIDACEAE                                         Byblis spp. #1

CACTACEAE                                           CACTACEAE spp. * #4
                     Ariocarpus spp.
                     Astrophytum asterias =377
                     Aztekium ritteri
                     Coryphantha minima =378
                     Coryphantha sneedii =378
                     Coryphantha werdermannii
                     Discocactus spp.
                     Disocactus macdougallii =379
                     Echinocereus ferreirianus
                     var. lindsayi =380
                     Echinocereus schmollii =381
                     Leuchtenbergia principis
                     Mammillaria pectinifera =382
                     Mammillaria plumosa
                     Mammillaria solisioides
                     Melocactus conoideus
                     Melocactus deinacanthus
                     Melocactus glaucescens
                     Melocactus paucispinus
                     Obregonia denegrii
                     Pachycereus militaris =383
                     Pediocactus bradyi =384
                     Pediocactus despainii
                     Pediocactus knowltonii =384
                     Pediocactus papyracanthus =385
                     Pediocactus paradinei
                     Pediocactus peeblesianus =384
                     Pediocactus sileri
                     Pediocactus winkleri
                     Pelecyphora spp.
                     Sclerocactus brevihamaticus =386
                     Sclerocactus erectocentrus =387
                     Sclerocactus glaucus
                     Sclerocactus mariposensis =387
                     Sclerocactus mesae-verdae
                     Sclerocactus pubispinus
                     Sclerocactus wrightiae
                     Strombocactus disciformis
                     Turbinicarpus spp. =388
                     Uebelmannia spp.

CARYOCARACEAE                                       Caryocar costaricense

CEPHALOTACEAE                                       Cephalotus follicularis

COMPOSITAE           Saussurea costus =389

CRASSULACEAE         Dudleya stolonifera
                     Dudleya traskiae

CUPRESSACEAE         Fitzroya cupressoides
                     Pilgerodendron uviferum

CYATHEACEAE                                         CYATHEACEAE spp. #1

CYCADACEAE                                          CYCADACEAE spp. * #1
                     Cycas beddomei

DIAPENSIACEAE                                       Shortia galacifolia #1

DICKSONIACEAE                                       DICKSONIACEAE spp. #1

DIDIEREACEAE                                        DIDIEREACEAE  spp. #1

DIOSCOREACEAE                                       Dioscorea deltoidea #1

DROSERACEAE                                         Dionea muscipula #1

ERICACEAE                                           Kalmia cuneata #1

EUPHORBIACEAE                                       Euphorbia spp. -114 #1
                     Euphorbia ambovombensis
                     Euphorbia cylindrifolia
                     Euphorbia decaryi
                     Euphorbia francoisii
                     Euphorbia moratii
                     Euphorbia parvicyathophora
                     Euphorbia primulifolia
                     Euphorbia quartziticola
                     Euphorbia tulearensis

FOUQUIERIACEAE                                      Fouquieria columnaris
                     Fouquieria fasciculata
                     Fouquieria purpusii

JUGLANDACEAE                                        Oreomunnea pterocarpa
                                                    =390 #1
 (FABACEAE)          Dalbergia nigra
                                                    Pericopsis elata #5

LILIACEAE                                           Aloe spp. * #6
                     Aloe albida
                     Aloe pillansii
                     Aloe polyphylla
                     Aloe thorncroftii
                     Aloe vossii

MELIACEAE                                           Swietenia humilis #1
                                                    Swietenia mahagoni #5

NEPENTHACEAE                                        Nepenthes spp. * #1
                     Nepenthes khasiana
                     Nepenthes rajah

ORCHIDACEAE                                         ORCHIDACEAE spp. *
                                                    =391 #7
                     Cattleya skinneri °504
                     Cattleya trianae °504
                     Didiciea cunninghamii °504
                     Laelia jongheana °504
                     Laelia lobata °504
                     Lycaste skinneri var. alba =392 °504
                     Paphiopedilum spp. °504
                     Peristeria elata °504
                     Phragmipedium spp. °504
                     Renanthera imschootiana °504
                     Vanda coerulea °504

PALMAE                                              Chrysalidocarpus
 (ARECACEAE)                                        #1
                                                    Neodypsis decaryi #1

PINACEAE             Abies guatemalensis

PODOCARPACEAE        Podocarpus parlatorei

PORTULACACEAE                                       Anacampseros spp. #1
                                                    Lewisia cotyledon #1
                                                    Lewisia maguirei #1
                                                    Lewisia serrata #1
                                                    Lewisia tweedyi #1

PRIMULACEAE                                         Cyclamen spp. #1

PROTEACEAE           Orothamnus zeyheri
                     Protea odorata

RUBIACEAE            Balmea stormiae

SARRACENIACEAE                                      Darlingtonia
                                                    californica #1
                                                    Sarracenia spp. * #1
                     Sarracenia alabamensis alabamensis
                     Sarracenia jonesii =394
                     Sarracenia oreophila

STANGERIACEAE        Stangeria eriopus =395

THEACEAE                                            Camellia chrysantha #1

WELWITSCHIACEAE                                     Welwitschia mirabilis
                                                    =396 #1

ZAMIACEAE                                           ZAMIACEAE spp. * #1
                     Ceratozamia spp.
                     Chigua spp.
                     Encephalartos spp.
                     Microcycas calocoma

ZINGIBERACEAE                                       Hedychium philippinense

ZYGOPHYLLACEAE                                      Guaiacum officinale #1
                                                    Guaiacum sanctum #1