THE MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION COMPENDIUM
MULTILATERAL / ANTARCTICA
Volume(s) 1-3; pages 8-14
Measures Approved or Recommended Under Article IX in Furtherance of Principles and Objectives of the Antarctic Treaty, Canberra, 1961
Adopted at Canberra 24 July 1961
Effective 30 April 1962
Primary source citation: 13 UST 1349, TIAS 5094
[RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE FIRST ANTARCTIC TREATY CONSULTATIVE MEETING]
The Meeting agreed unanimously to the adoption of the following recommendations:
The Representatives recommend to their Governments that they should facilitate the continuation of the exchange of information regarding plans for scientific programmes as now carried on through the Special Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and through other member unions and committees of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) and by such other means as may ensure the availability of this information.
The Representatives recommend to their Governments that they should promote the continuation of the exchange, on a basis of bilateral arrangements, of scientific personnel amongst their expeditions, and should make available such of their facilities as may be helpful to this purpose.
The Representatives recommend to their Governments that they should promote the exchange and making available of observations and results from Antarctica through the recognized international data gathering centres and by such other means as may be appropriate to ensure the exchange and free availability of this information.
The Representatives agree, without prejudice to the rights of Governments to make such arrangements as they may deem necessary to further the objectives of scientific co-operation set forth in the Treaty:
(1) that the free exchange of information and views among scientists participating in SCAR, and the recommendations concerning scientific programmes and co-operation formulated by this body constitute a most valuable contribution to international scientific co-operation in Antarctica;
(2) that since these activities of SCAR constitute the kind of activity contemplated in Article III of the Treaty, SCAR should be encouraged to continue this advisory work which has so effectively facilitated international co-operation in scientific investigation.
The Representatives recommend to their Governments that they should individually encourage the work of international organisations having a scientific or technical interest in Antarctica, including the specialised agencies of the United Nations, and should promote on a bilateral basis the establishment and development of co-operative working relations with these organisations.
In this connection, the Representatives take note of the letter to the Minister of State for External Affairs of Australia from the Secretary-General of the World Meteorological Organisation dated 28 June 1961, circulated at the Meeting. They welcome the offer made by the World Meteorological Organisation of co-operation in questions of meteorology and of the collection and relaying of meteorological data in the Antarctic, and recommend to their Governments that they should establish co-operation in these matters through their Representatives in that Organisation.
The Representatives recommend to their Governments that information furnished in accordance with Article VII paragraph 5 should be exchanged between Governments through diplomatic channels as early in each year as possible, and in any case before the end of November each year, and should include-
(1) the names, types, numbers, descriptions and armaments of ships, aircraft and other vehicles, introduced, or to be introduced into Antarctica, and information on military equipment, if any, and its location in Antarctica;
(2) dates of expeditions leaving for, and arriving in, Antarctica, duration of stay, itinerary to and from Antarctica and routes followed within Antarctica;
(3) the names, location and date of opening of the Party's bases and subsidiary stations established or planned to be established in Antarctica, listed according to whether they are for summer and/or winter operations;
(4) the names of the officers in charge of each of these bases, subsidiary stations, ships and aircraft; the number and occupations and specialisation of personnel (including any designated by other governments), who are or will be stationed at each of these bases and subsidiary stations and on board these ships and aircraft, including the number of personnel who are members of the military services together with the rank of any officers and the names and professional affiliation of personnel engaged in scientific activities;
(5) the number and types of armaments possessed by personnel;
(6) the programme of work, including scientific investigation, being done and planned at each of these bases and subsidiary stations and on board those ships and aircraft; and also the area or areas of operation to be covered by such programme;
(7) principal scientific equipment;
(8) transportation facilities and communication equipment for use within Antarctica;
(9) facilities for rendering assistance;
(10) notice of any expeditions to Antarctica not organised by the Party but organised, in, or proceeding from, the Party's territory.
The Representatives recommend to their Governments that they should undertake to exchange information on logistic problems. This might include information on the design and construction of buildings and airstrips, the provision of power supplies, the performance of aircraft, ships, tractors and other vehicles, techniques of supply of coastal and inland stations, the transport and handling of cargo in Antarctic conditions, food and cold weather clothing. They further recommend that consideration should be given to the calling of a meeting or symposium of experts to consider the question of the exchange of information on experience gained in matters of the organisation of expeditions, logistic support and transport, and that proposals for the calling of such a meeting or symposium should be discussed at or before the next Treaty Consultative Meeting.
The Representatives recommend to their Governments that:
(i) they recognize the urgent need for measures to conserve the living resources of the Treaty area and to protect them from uncontrolled destruction or interference by man;
(ii) they encourage the interchange of information and international co-operation with a view to promoting scientific studies of Antarctic life as the essential basis for long-term conservation measures;
(iii) they bring to the attention of all persons entering the area the need for the protection of living resources;
(iv) they consult on the form in which it would be most suitable to establish in due course internationally agreed measures for the preservation and conservation of the living resources of the Antarctic, taking into account the discussion at and documents submitted to the First Consultative Meeting.
(v) as an interim measure, and to the extent possible under national legislation and binding international conventions, they issue general rules of conduct on the lines of the attached statement extracted from the recommendations of SCAR as contained in the report of the Meeting held at Cambridge in August 1960;
(vi) they exchange information on any major steps taken in accordance with this recommendation with respect to the next Antarctic season;
(vii) this question be included in the Agenda of the next Consultative Meeting.
GENERAL RULES OF CONDUCT FOR PRESERVATION AND CONSERVATION OF LIVING RESOURCES IN ANTARCTICA
1. Animals and plants indigenous to Antarctica shall not be unnecessarily disturbed and shall not be destroyed or injured. Exceptions shall be permitted on a strictly controlled scale which will not deplete the local stock and only for the following purposes:
(a) collections and studies for scientific purposes;
(b) food (e.g. meat, eggs) for men and dogs;
(c) living specimens for zoological gardens;
(d) taking a strictly limited number of specimens, especially natural casualties, for private purposes.
Exceptions (c) and (d) shall not apply for the time being to fur seals.
2. Alien forms of flora and fauna should not be deliberately introduced except when rigidly controlled having regard to their chances of survival, capacity of reproduction and utilization by man.
3. The following activities should be regulated with a view to preventing serious harm to wildlife:
(a) allowing dogs to run free,
(b) flying helicopters or other aircraft in a manner which would unnecessarily disturb bird and seal colonies, or landing near (e.g. within 200 yards) such colonies,
(c) driving vehicles unnecessarily close to breeding colonies of birds and seals,
(d) use of explosive or discharge of firearms close to breeding colonies of birds and seals,
(e) disturbance of bird and seal colonies by persistent attention from people on foot,
(f) the discharge of oil from ships in a manner harmful to animals and plants indigenous to Antarctica.
With due regard to Article IV of the Treaty, the Representatives recommend that-
(1) Governments interested in any tombs, buildings or objects of historic interest should consult together whenever appropriate on their restoration or preservation;
(2) appropriate reports on the condition of such tombs, buildings or objects of historic interest as well as any restoration which might have been effected should be exchanged among Governments;
(3) Governments adopt all adequate measures to protect such tombs, buildings or objects of historic interest, from damage and destruction.
The Representatives reaffirm the traditional Antarctic principle that expeditions render all assistance feasible in the event of an emergency request for help and recommend to their Governments that consideration should be given to arranging consultations among them, and to the matter being discussed at the appropriate time at any meeting of experts qualified to discuss it.
The Representatives recommend to their Governments:
(1) that they convene as soon as practicable a meeting of specialists in Antarctic radio communications;
(2) that this meeting of specialists should discuss the telecommunications facilities needed for scientific, technical and other purposes in the Treaty area, and their use;
(3) that the meeting should take into consideration-
(a) the requirements of governments;
(b) the viewpoint of the United Nations Specialised Agencies and other International organisations having a scientific or technical interest in Antarctic communications;
(c) the relevant recommendations of the communications working group of SCAR;
(d) the experience of the various Antarctic expeditions;
(4) that the meeting should examine and make recommendations regarding such matters as-
(i) the routing required to meet demands of users most effectively;
(ii) the modes of transmission;
(iii) the power requirements for effective reception;
(iv) the rationalisation of schedules and the evaluation of priorities for traffic in normal and post blackout conditions.
(v) new developments in the field of communications relevant to Antarctic requirements;
(vi) emergency radio procedures;
(vii) such other matters of an engineering or traffic nature as may be appropriate;
(5) that the Governments should consult regarding the date, place and definitive agenda of the meeting, and as to which specialised agencies and other international organisations referred to in paragraph 3(b) should be informed of the meeting and be invited to send observers.
The Representatives recommend to their Governments that they should:-
1. promote co-operation among expeditions in the Treaty area in the collection and distribution of mail for expedition members;
2. advise each other of opportunities for forwarding mail to and from stations in the Treaty area;
3. consult together with a view to reaching agreement on further practical measures for improving postal communications in the Treaty area.
Taking into consideration the provisions established in Article V of the Antarctic Treaty, the Representatives recommend to their Governments that they exchange by all means deemed advisable information on the application of nuclear equipment and techniques in the Treaty area.
Pending any further recommendation which may be adopted at a future Meeting concerning the procedures to be followed in connection with the Consultative Meetings provided for in Article IX of the Treaty, the Representatives recommend to their Governments that as an interim measure:
(1) the Government of the host country of the present Meeting shall send to each of the participating Governments a certified copy of the Final Report containing the authentic texts of all documents agreed and adopted by the Meeting. It shall also send to the other participating Governments any other documents relative to the Meeting and comply with any additional request, or answer any questions on the subject, and supply any information which the participating Governments may subsequently request regarding the First Consultative Meeting or recommendations of that Meeting;
(2) the Government of the country where the next Meeting is to be held shall consult the other Governments entitled to participate in the Consultative Meetings in regard to the provisional agenda and the choice of the opening date of the Meeting;
(3) the Governments shall consult through diplomatic channels as they deem necessary on matters of common interest relating to the Treaty area including matters which may be proposed for consideration at future Consultative Meetings;
(4) notifications of approval by Governments of recommendations adopted at Consultative Meetings shall be communicated through diplomatic channels to all other such Governments entitled to participate in the Consultative Meetings;
(5) the depositary Government designated in the Antarctic Treaty shall inform all signatory and acceding states when any recommendation has been approved in accordance with Article IX (4) of the Treaty by all the Contracting Parties whose representatives were entitled to participate in the Meeting held to consider that recommendation.
The Representatives recommend to their Governments that they accept the offer by the Delegation of Argentina of the city of Buenos Aires as the seat of the Second Consultative Meeting under Article IX of the Antarctic Treaty, to be held on a date mutually decided upon by the participating Governments.
The Representatives recommend to their Governments that reports, studies and all other documentation, including any specific proposal or draft recommendation, which any participating Government may desire to place before the next Consultative Meeting, shall be forwarded through diplomatic channels so as to reach all Governments entitled to participate in that Consultative Meeting, at least one month prior to the Meeting, except in circumstances of urgency.
In respect of Recommendation I-IX, the French Delegation stated that the French Government would wish to give the word ‘object’ a fairly broad significance.
In respect of Recommendation I-XII, the United Kingdom Delegation stated that it considered that Governments should, in consulting together with a view to reaching agreement on further practical measures for improving postal communications in the Treaty area, give consideration to the following measures:
(a) accept for transmission to the Antarctic by all available means of transport correspondence or mails, other than philatelic mail, addressed to Antarctic stations occupied by other participating countries;
(b) invite the International Bureau of the Universal Postal Union to advise other postal administrations to send correspondence addressed to an Antarctic station to the postal administration of the country occupying the station for onward transmission;
(c) recognize as duly prepaid correspondence originating in an Antarctic station occupied by another participating country and prepaid in postage stamps issued by that country;
(d) accept such prepaid correspondence for transmission from the Antarctic by all available means of transport to the most convenient office of exchange in a participating country;
(e) reforward the correspondence from the office of exchange to its destination in accordance with the provisions of the Universal Postal Convention, particularly those concerning transit payments;
(f) put their mail services, subject to prepayment in the normal way, at the disposal of the personnel of any Antarctic station occupied by another participating country which is for any reason prevented from using the stamps of that country for the prepayment of its correspondence.
In respect of Recommendation I-XIII, the Chilean Delegation stated that it understood that the declaration in no way implied a change in Article V of the Antarctic Treaty, and the French Delegation stated that it considered that the information exchanged should also be brought to the notice of the International Atomic Energy Agency when Governments considered this was appropriate.
In respect of Recommendation I-XIV, the New Zealand Delegation expressed the hope that any consultations pursuant to paragraphs 2 and 3 would take place in a capital where New Zealand had diplomatic representation.