Convention Relative To The Preservation Of Fauna And Flora In Their Natural State
1. Save as regards the territories mentioned in paragraph 3 (i) of the present article, any Contracting Government shall be at liberty in accordance with the provisions of article 13, to assume, in respect of any of its territories (including metropolitan territories, colonies, overseas territories, or territories under suzerainty, protection, or mandate), only those obligations of the present Convention which are set out in article 9, paragraph 3, 8 and 9. The term "in part" in the present Convention shall be deemed to refer to those obligations.
2. The expression "territory" or "territories" in relation to any Contracting Government shall, for the purposes of articles 2-12 of the present Convention denote the territory or territories of that government to which the Convention is applicable in full; and, subject to the provisions of the preceding paragraph and of article 13, the obligations arising under articles 2-12 shall relate only to such territories.
3. The present Convention shall apply and shall be applicable in full to (i) all the territories (i. e., metropolitan territories, colonies, overseas territories, or territories under suzerainty, protection, or mandate) of any Contracting Government which are situated in the continent of Africa, including Madagascar and Zanzibar; (ii) any other territory in respect of which a Contracting Government shall have assumed all the obligations of the present Convention in accordance with the provisions of article 13.
4. For the purposes of the present Convention the British High Commission Territories in South Africa shall be regarded as territory.
5. The present Convention shall not have any application, either in full or in part, to any metropolitan territory not situated in the continent of Africa, except where and to the extent to which a declaration effecting such application is made under article 13.
For the purposes of the present Convention
1. The expression "national park" shall denote an area (a) placed under public control, the boundaries of which shall not be altered or any portion be capable of alienation except by the competent legislative authority, (b) set aside for the propagation, protection and preservation of wild animal life and wild vegetation, and for the preservation of objects of aesthetic, geological, prehistoric, historical, archaeological, or other scientific interest for the benefit, advantage, and enjoyment of the general public, (c) in which the hunting, killing or capturing of fauna and the destruction or collection of flora is prohibited except by or under the direction or control of the park authorities. In accordance with the above provisions facilities shall, so far as possible, be given to the general public for observing the fauna and flora in national parks.
2. The term "strict natural reserve" shall denote an area placed under public control, throughout which any form of hunting or fishing, any undertakings connected with forestry, agriculture, or mining, any excavations or prospecting, drilling, levelling of the ground, or construction, any work involving the alteration of the configuration of the soil or the character of the vegetation, any act likely to harm or disturb the fauna and flora, and the introduction of any species of fauna and flora whether indigenous or imported, wild or domesticated, shall be strictly forbidden; which it shall be forbidden to enter, traverse, or camp in without a special written permit from the competent authorities; and in which scientific investigations may only be undertaken by permission of those authorities.
3. The expression "animal" or "species" shall denote all vertebrates and invertebrates (including non-edible fish, but not including edible fish except in a national park or strict natural reserve), their nests, eggs, egg-shells, skins, and plumage.
1. The Contracting Government will explore forthwith the possibility of establishing in their territories national parks and strict natural reserves as defined in the preceding article. In all cases where the establishment of such parks or reserves is possible, the necessary work shall be commenced within two years from the date of the entry into force of the present Convention.
2. If in any territory the establishment of a national park or strict natural reserve is found to be impracticable at present, suitable areas shall be selected as early as possible in the development of the territory concerned, and the areas so selected shall be transformed into national parks or strict natural reserves as soon as, in the opinion of the authorities of the territory, circumstances will permit.
The Contracting Governments will give consideration in respect of each of their territories to the following administrative arrangements:
1. The control of all white or native settlements in national parks with a view to ensuring that as little disturbance as possible is occasioned to the natural fauna and flora.
2. The establishment round the borders of national parks and strict natural reserves of intermediate zones within which the hunting, killing and capturing of animals may take place under the control of the authorities of the park or reserve; but in which no person who becomes an owner, tenant, or occupier after a date to be determined by the authority of the territory concerned shall have any claim in respect of depredations caused by animals.
3. The choice in respect of all national parks of areas sufficient in extent to cover, so far as possible, the migrations of the fauna preserved therein.
1. The Contracting Governments shall notify the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland of the establishment of any national parks or strict natural reserves (defining the area of the parks or reserves), and of the legislation, including the methods of administration and control, adopted in connexion therewith.
2. They shall similarly notify any information relevant to the purposes of the present Convention and communicated to them by any national museums or by any societies, national or international, established within their jurisdiction and interested in those purposes.
3. The Government of the United Kingdom will communicate the information so received to the other Governments whether in full or in part.
In all cases in which it is proposed to establish in any territory of a Contracting Government a national park or strict natural reserve contiguous to a park or reserve situated in another territory (whether of that Government or of another Contracting Government), or to the boundary of such territory, there shall be prior consultation between the competent authorities of the territories concerned. Similarly, there shall be co-operation between those authorities subsequent to the establishment of the park or reserve, or where such a park or reserve is already established.
Irrespective of any action which may be taken under article 3 of the present Convention, the Contracting Governments shall, as measures preliminary and supplementary to the establishment of national parks or strict natural reserves:
1. Set aside in each of their territories suitable areas (to be known as reserves) within which the hunting, killing or capturing of any part of the natural fauna (exclusive of fish) shall be prohibited save (a) by the permission, given for scientific or administrative purposes in exceptional cases by the authorities of the territory or by the central authorities under whom the reserves are placed, or (b) for the protection of life and property. Licences granted under article 8, paragraphs 1 and 3, shall not extend to reserves.
2. Extend to these areas, as far as may be practicable, a similar degree of protection to the natural flora.
3. Consider the possibility of establishing in each of their territories special reserves for the preservation of species of fauna and flora which it is desired to preserve, but which are not otherwise adequately protected, with special reference to species mentioned in the annex to the present Convention.
4. Furnish information regarding the reserves established in accordance with the preceding paragraphs to the Government of the United Kingdom, which will communicate such information to all the Governments mentioned in article 5, paragraph 2.
5. Take, so far as in their power lies, all necessary measures to ensure in each of their territories a sufficient degree of forest country and the preservation of the best native indigenous forest species, and, without prejudice to the provisions of article 2, paragraph 2, give consideration to the desirability of preventing the introduction of exotic trees or plants into national parks or reserves.
6. Establish as close a degree of co-operation as possible between the competent authorities of their respective territories with the object of facilitating the solution of forestry problems in those territories.
7. Take the necessary measures to control and regulate so far as possible the practice of firing the bush on the borders of forests.
8. Encourage the domestication of wild animals susceptible of economic utilisation.
1. The protection of the species mentioned in the annex to the present Convention is declared to be of special urgency and importance. Animals belonging to the species mentioned in Class A shall, in each of the territories of the Contracting Governments, be protected as completely as possible, and the hunting, killing or capturing of them shall only take place by special permission of the highest authority in the territory, which shall be given only under special circumstances, solely in order to further important scientific purposes, or when essential for the administration of the territory. Animals belonging to the species mentioned in Class B, whilst not requiring such rigorous protection as those mentioned in Class A shall not be hunted, killed, or captured, even by natives, except under special licence granted by the competent authorities. For this purpose a special licence shall denote a licence other than an ordinary game license, granted at the discretion of the competent authority, and giving permission to hunt, kill, or capture one or more specimens of a specified animal or animals. Every such licence shall be limited as regards the period and the area within which hunting, killing or capturing may take place.
2. No hunting or other rights already possessed by native chiefs or tribes or any other persons or bodies, by treaty, concession, or specific agreement or by administrative permission in those areas in which such rights have already been definitely recognised by the authorities of the territory, are to be considered as being in any way prejudiced by the provisions of the preceding paragraph.
3. In each of the territories of the Contracting Governments the competent authorities shall consider whether it is necessary to apply the provisions of paragraph 1 of the present article to any species not mentioned in the annex, in order to preserve the indigenous fauna and flora in each area, and, if they deem it necessary, shall apply those provisions to any such species to the extent which they consider desirable. They shall similarly consider whether it is necessary in the territory concerned to accord to any of the species mentioned in Class B of the annex the special protection accorded to the species mentioned in Class A.
4. The competent authorities shall also give consideration to the question of protecting species of animals or plants which by general admission are useful to man or of special scientific interest.
5. Nothing in the present article shall (i) prejudice any right which may exist under the local law of any territory to kill animals without a licence in defence of life or property, or (ii) affect the right of the authorities of the territory to permit the hunting, killing, or capturing of any species (a) in time of famine, (b) for the protection of human life, public health, or domestic stock, (c) for any requirement relating to public order.
6. Each Contracting Government shall furnish to the Government of the United Kingdom information on the subject of the measures adopted in each of its territories in regard to the grant of licences, and in regard to the animals, the destruction or capture of which is, in accordance with paragraph 3 of this article, not permitted except under licence. The Government of the United Kingdom will communicate any such information to all the Governments mentioned in article 5, paragraph 2.
1. Each Contracting Government shall take the necessary measures to control and regulate in each of its territories the internal, and the import and export, traffic in, and the manufacture of articles from, trophies as defined in paragraph 8 of the present article, with a view to preventing the import or export of, or any dealing in trophies other than such as have been originally killed, captured or collected in accordance with the laws and regulations of the territory concerned.
2. The export of trophies to any destination whatsoever shall be prohibited unless the exporter has been granted a certificate permitting export and issued by a competent authority. Such certificate shall only be issued where the trophies have been lawfully imported or lawfully obtained. In the event of an attempted export without any certificate having been granted, the authorities of the territory where this attempt takes place shall apply such penalties as they may think necessary.
3. The import of trophies which have been exported from any territory to which the present Convention is applicable in full, whether a territory of another Contracting Government or not, shall be prohibited except on production of a certificate or lawful export. failing which the trophy shall be confiscated, but without prejudice to the application of the penalties mentioned in the preceding paragraph.
4. The import and export of trophies, except at places where there is a customs station, shall be prohibited.
5. (a)Every trophy consisting of ivory and rhinoceros horn exported in accordance with the provisions of the present article shall be identified by marks which, together with the weight of the trophy shall be recorded in the certificate of lawful export.
(b)Every other trophy shall, if possible, be similarly marked and recorded, but shall in any event be described in the certificate so as to identify it with as much certainty as possible.
(c)The Contracting Governments shall take such measures as may be possible by the preparation and circulation of appropriate illustrations or otherwise to instruct their customs officers in the methods of identifying the species mentioned in the annex to the present Convention and the trophies derived therefrom.
6. The measures contemplated in paragraph 1 of the present article shall include provisions that found ivory, rhinoceros horn and all trophies of animals found dead, or accidentally killed, or killed in defence of any persons, shall, in principle, be the property of the Government of the territory concerned, and shall be disposed of according to regulations introduced by that Government, due regard being had to the native rights and customs reserved in the succeeding paragraph.
7. No rights of the kind specified in paragraph 2 of article 8 are to be considered as being prejudiced by the provisions of the preceding paragraphs.
8. For the purposes of the present article the expression "trophy" shall denote any animal, dead or alive, mentioned in the annex to the Convention, or anything part of or produced from any such animal when dead, or the eggs, eggshells, nests or plumage of any bird so mentioned. The expression "trophy" shall not, however, include any trophy or part of a trophy which by a process of bona fide manufacture, as contemplated in paragraph 1 of the present article, has lost its original identity.
9. Each Contracting Government shall furnish to the Government of the United Kingdom information as to the measures taken in order to carry out the obligations of the present article or any part of them. The Government of the United Kingdom will communicate any information so received to all the Governments mentioned in article 5, paragraph 2.
1. The use of motor vehicles or aircraft (including aircraft lighter than air) shall be prohibited in the territories of the Contracting Governments, both (i) for the purpose of hunting, killing, or capturing animals, and (ii) in such manner as to drive, stampede, or disturb them for any purpose whatsoever, including that of filming or photographing, provided, however, that nothing in the present paragraph shall affect the right of occupiers in respect of land occupied by them, or of Governments in respect of land utilised for public purposes, to use motor vehicles or aircraft for the purpose of driving away, capturing or destroying animals found on such land in all cases where such ejection, capture or destruction is not prohibited by any other provision of the present Convention.
2. The Contracting Governments shall prohibit in their territories the surrounding of animals by fires for hunting purposes. Wherever possible, the under-mentioned methods of capturing or destroying animals shall also be generally prohibited:
(a)the use of poison, or explosives for killing fish;
(b)the use of dazzling lights, flares, poison, or poisoned weapons for hunting animals;
(c)the use of nets, pits, or enclosures, gins, traps or snares, or of set guns and missiles containing explosives for hunting animals.
It is understood that upon signature, ratification, or accession any Contracting Government may make such express reservations in regard to articles 3-10 of the present Convention as may be considered essential.
1. Each Contracting Government shall furnish to the Government of the United Kingdom information as to the measures taken for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of the preceding articles. The Government of the United Kingdom will communicate all the information so furnished to the Governments mentioned in article 5, paragraph 2.
2. The Contracting Governments shall, wherever necessary, co-operate between themselves for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of the preceding articles and to prevent the extinction of fauna and flora.
3. All the Governments which sign or accede to the present Convention shall be deemed to be parties to the Protocol bearing this day's date drawn up to facilitate the co-operation mentioned in the preceding paragraph.
1. Any Contracting Government may, at the time of signature, ratification, or accession, or thereafter, make a declaration assuming in respect of any one or more of its territories (including metropolitan territories, colonies, overseas territories, or territories under suzerainty, protection, or mandate) other than those mentioned in paragraph 3 (i) of article 1, either all the obligations of the present Convention, or only those contained in article 9, paragraphs 3, 8 and 9. If such declaration is made subsequent to ratification or accession it shall be effected by means of a notification in writing addressed to the Government of the United Kingdom, and shall take effect on the entry into force of the Convention or, if the Convention is already in force, three months after the date of the receipt of the notification by the Government of the United Kingdom.
2. It is understood that any Contracting Government may, by a single declaration made under the preceding paragraph, assume, in respect of some of its territories mentioned in that paragraph, all the obligations of the present Convention, and in respect of other such territories only the obligations contained in article 9 paragraphs 3, 8 and 9.
3. Any Contracting Government which has made a declaration under the preceding paragraph, assuming, in respect of any territory, only the obligations contained in article 9 paragraphs 3, 8 and 9, may, at any subsequent time, by a notification in writing addressed to the Government of the United Kingdom, declare that such previous declaration shall henceforth be deemed to relate to all the obligations of the Convention in respect of the territory concerned and such subsequent declaration shall take effect on the entry into force of the Convention or, if the Convention is already in force, three months after the date of the receipt of the notification by the Government of the United Kingdom.
4. Any Contracting Government may at any time, by a notification in writing addressed to the Government of the United Kingdom, determine the application of the Convention to any territory or territories which have been the subject of a declaration under paragraphs 1 and 3 of the present article, and the Convention shall thereupon cease to apply to the territory or territories mentioned in the notification one year after the date of its receipt by the Government of the United Kingdom, provided that such notification shall in no case take effect until the expiry of the period of five years mentioned in article 19, paragraph 1.
5. It is understood that if, as the result of a notification made under the preceding paragraph, there would remain no territories of the Contracting Government concerned to which the Convention would be applicable either in full or in part, such Government shall, instead of making the notification, proceed by way of denunciation under article 19.
6. It is further understood that no notification made under paragraph 4 of the present article, or otherwise, may purport to apply only the provisions of article 9 paragraphs 3, 8 and 9, to any territory to which at the time of the notification, the Convention applies in full.
7. The Government of the United Kingdom will inform all the Governments mentioned in article 5 paragraph 2, of any notification received under the preceding paragraphs of the present article, of the date of their receipt of their terms.
It is understood that no Government will sign, ratify, or accede to the present Convention unless it either has territories covered by article 1, paragraph 3 (i), or makes or has made a declaration under article 13 assuming in respect of one or more territories the obligations of the Convention either in full or in part.
The present Convention, of which the French and English texts shall both be equally authentic, shall bear this day's date and shall be open for signature until the 31st March 1934.
The present Convention shall be subject to ratification. The instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Government of the United Kingdom, which will notify their receipt and the date thereof, and their terms and the terms of any accompanying declarations or reservations to all the Governments mentioned in article 5, paragraph 2.
At any time after the 31st March 1934, the present Convention shall be open to accession by any Government of a metropolitan territory, by which it has not been signed, whether it has territories covered by article 1, paragraph 3 (i), or not. Accessions shall be notified to the Government of the United Kingdom, which will inform all the Governments mentioned in article 5, paragraph 2, of all notifications received, their terms and the terms of any accompanying declarations or reservations, and the date of their receipt.
1. After the deposit or notification of not less than four ratifications or accessions on the part of Contracting Governments having territories covered by article 1, paragraph 3 (i), the present Convention shall come into force three months after the deposit or notification of the last of such ratifications or accessions, as between the Governments concerned. The Government of the United Kingdom will notify all the Governments mentioned in article 5, paragraph 2, of the date of the coming into force of the Convention.
2. Any ratifications or accessions received after the date of the entry into force of the Convention shall take effect three months after the date of their receipt of the Government of the United Kingdom.
1. Any Contracting Government may at any time denounce the present Convention by a notification in writing addressed to the Government of the United Kingdom. Such denunciation shall take effect, as regards the Government making it, and in respect of all the territories of that Government to which the Convention shall then apply, either in full or in part, one year after the date of the receipt of the notification by the Government of the United Kingdom provided, however, that no denunciation shall take effect until the expiry of five years from the date of the entry into force of the Convention.
2. If, as the result of simultaneous or successive denunciations, the number of Contracting Governments bound, in respect of one or more of their territories, by all the obligations of the present Convention is reduced to less than four, the Convention shall cease to be in force as from the date on which the last of such denunciations shall take effect in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph.
3. The Government of the United Kingdom will notify all the other Governments mentioned in article 5, paragraph 2, of any denunciations so received and the date on which they take effect. The Government of the United Kingdom will also, if occasion arises, similarly notify the date on which the Convention ceases to be in force under the provisions of the preceding paragraph.
In witness whereof the above-named Plenipotentiaries have signed the present Convention.
Done in London, this eighth day of November 1933, in a single copy, which shall remain deposited in the archives of the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, which will transmit certified true copies thereof to all the Governments attending the Conference at which the present Convention has been drawn up whether as participators or observers, as well as to any other Government to which the Government of the United Kingdom may deem it desirable to communicate a copy.
A1. Gorilla - Gorilla gorilla (Savage & Wyman) (all subspecies) Anthropopithecus gorilla Savage & Wyman, 1847, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. 5:419
A2. All Madagascar Lemurs - Chiromyidae Lemuridae and Indrisidae (Note These families include numerous genera and species)
A3. Aard Wolf - Proteles cristatus (Sparrman) Viverra cristala Sparrman, 1785, Voy. : 177
A4. Fossa Gray (all subspecies). Fossa Gray, 1964, Proc. Zool. Soc Lond. 1864: 518
A5. Giant Sable Antelope - Hippotragus niger variani Thomas Hippotragus niger variani Thomas, 1916, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1916:298
A6. Nyala - Tragelaphus angasi Angas Tragelaphus angasi Angas, 1848, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lon. 1848: 89
A7. Mountain Nyala or Bushbuck - Tragelaphus buxtoni Lydekker Tragelaphus buxtoni Lydekker, 1910, Nature 84: 397
A8. Okapi - Okapia johnstoni (Sclater) Equus (?) johnstoni Sclater, 1901, Proc. Zool. Soc Lon. 1901 (1): 50
A9. Barbary Stag - Cervus elaphus barbarus Bennett Cervus barbarus Bennett, 1837, List Anim Gardens Zool. Soc. : 31
A10. Pigmy Hippopotamus - Choeropsis liberiensis (Morton) Hippopotamus liberiensis Morton, 1849, J Acad, Nat Sci. Philad. (1) 4: 232 Hippopotamus minor Morton, 1844, Proc. Acad Nat. Sci. Philad. 2 (1): 15
A11. Mountain Zebra - Hippotigris zebra (Linnaeus) (all subspecies)
Equus zebra Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. ed 10 1: 74
A12. Wild Ass - Asinus asinus (Linnaeus) (all subspecies) Equus asinus; Linnaeus, 1758, Syst Nat. ed 10 1: 73
A13. White Rhinoceros - Rhinoceros simus Burchell (all subspecies) Rhinoceros simns Burchell, 1817, Bull. Soc. Philom. 1817: 96
A14. Northern Hartebeest or Bubal - Bubalis buselaphus (Pallas) Antilope buselaphus Pallas, 1766, Misc. Zool. : 7
A15. Abyssinian Ibex or Wali - Capra walie Ruppell Capra walie Ruppell 1835, Neue Wirbelthiere Abyssin. 1: 16
A16. Elephant - Elephas africanus Blumenbach Elphas africanus Blumenbach, 1779, Handbuch der Naturgeschichte, ed 5: 125 (Note: This species to be included in class A only in respect of specimens of which the tusks do not exceed 5 kilograms in weight each. )
A17. Water Chevrotain - Hyemoschus aquaticus (Ogilby) (all subspecies) Moschus aquaticus Ogilby, 1840, Proc. Zool Soc. 1840: 35
A18. Whale-headed Stork or Shoe-bill - Balaeniceps rex Gould Balaneniceps rex Gould, 1851, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1851: 1
Al9. Bald-headed Ibis or Waldrapp -Comatibis eremita (Linnaeus) Upapa eremita Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 1: 118
A20. White-breasted Guinea Fowl - Agelastes meleagrides Bonaparte Agelastes meleagrides Bonaparte, 1849, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1849: 145
A21. Welwitschia - Welwitschia Bainesii (Carrieere) Welwitschia Bainesii (Carrieere) 1933, Flora Capensis 5(2): Suppl. 1-3 (formerly Welwitschia mirabilis Hooker fil. )
B1. Chimpanzee - Anthropopithecus Blainville (all subspecies. ) Anthropopithecus Blainville, 1838, Ann, Franc. et Enitranged Anat. et Physiol. 2: 360
B2. Colobus Monkey - Colobus Illiger (all subspecies ) Colobus Illiger, 1811, Prodomus: 69
B3. Giant Eland or Lord Derby's Eland -Taurotragus derbianus (Gray) (all subspecics) Boselaphus derbianus Gray 1847. Ann. Mag Nat. Hist. (1) 20: 286 Boselaphus orcas Gray, I847. List Osteol. Brit. Mus. : 155
B4. Giraffe - Giraffa Zimmermann (all subspecies) Giraffa Zimmermann, 1780, Cicorg. Gesch. 2: 125
B5. White-tailed Gnu - Connochaetes gnou (Zimmermann) Bos gnou; Zimmermann, 1772, spess. Zool. Georgr; 372
B6. Yellow-backed Duiker - Cephalophus sylvicultrix (Afzelius) Antilope sylvicultrix, Afzelius, 1815, Nova Acta Soc. Upsala 6: 265
B7. Jentink's Duiker - Cephalophus jentinki Thomas Cephalophus jentinki Thomas, 1892, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1892: 417 Antilope longiceps Jentink, 1885, Notes Leyden Mus. 7: 272
B8. Beira - Dorcotragus megalotis (Menges) Oreotragus megalotis Menges, 1894, Zool. Anz. 1894: 131
B9. Dibatag or Clarke's Gazelle - Ammodorcas clarkei (Thomas) cervicapra clarkei Thomas, 1891, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 7:304
B10. Bontebok - Damaliscus pygargus (Pallas) Antilope pygarga Pallas, 1767, Spicil. Zool. fasc. 1: 10 Antilope dorcas Pallas, 1766, Misc. Zool. : 6; nee Capra dorcas Linnaeus
B11. Black Rhinoceros - Rhinoceros bicornis Linnaeus Rhinoceros bicornis Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 1: 56
B12. Elephant - Elephas africanus Blumenback Elephas africanus, Blumenbach, 1779, Handbuch der Naturgeschichte ed. 5: 125 (The above species to be included in Class B in respect of specimens of which the tusks exceed 5 kilograms in weight each. )
B13. Pangolin - Manis Linnaeus (all species) Manis Linnaeus, 1758, syst. Nat. ed. 10 1: 36
B14. Marabou - Leptoptilos crumeniferus (Lesson) Ciconia crumenifera Lesson, 1831, Traite' d'Orn: 585
B15. Abyssinian Ground Hornbill - Bucorvus abyssinicus (Boddaert) Buceros abyssinicus Boddaert, 1783, Tabl. Planches enluminees: 48
B16. Ground Hornbill - Bucorvus cafer (Schlegel) Buceros carunculatus cafer Schlegel, 1862, Mus. Pays-Bas 1: 20
B17. Wild Ostrich - Struthio Linnaeus (all African subspecies) Struthio Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 1: 155 Note: The African subspecies are the following: North African Ostrich - S. camelus camelus Linnaeus, 1758; Southern Ostrich - S. c. australis Gurney, 1868; Masai Ostrich - S. c. massaicus Neumann, 1898; and Somali Ostrich - S. c. molybdophanes Reichenow, 1883.
B18. Secretary Bird - Sagitarius serpentarius (Miller) Falco serpentarius Miller, 1779, Icon. Anim. pl. 28
B19. Little Egret - Egretta garzetta (Linnaeus) Ardea garzetta Linnaeus, 1766. Syst. Nat. ed. 12 1: 237
B20. African Great White Egret - Casmerodius albus melanorchynchus (Wagler) Ardea melanorhynchus Wagler, 1827, Syst. Av. Additamenta (last page)
B21. African yellow-billed Egret - Mesophoyx intermedius brachyrhynchus (Brehm) Herodias (Egretta) brachyrynchus Brehm, 1858, J. Ornith. : 471
B22. Buff-backed Heron - Bubulcus ibis ( Linnaeus) Ardea ibis. Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat. ed. 10 1: 144